Visual arts

The visual arts are art forms such as ceramicsdrawingpaintingsculptureprintmakingdesigncraftsphotographyvideofilmmaking, and architecture. Many artistic disciplines (performing artsconceptual arttextile arts) involve aspects of the visual arts as well as arts of other types. Also included within the visual arts[1] are the applied arts[2] such as industrial designgraphic designfashion designinterior design and decorative art.[3]

Current usage of the term “visual arts” includes fine art as well as the applied, decorative arts and crafts, but this was not always the case. Before the Arts and Crafts Movement in Britain and elsewhere at the turn of the 20th century, the term ‘artist’ was often restricted to a person working in the fine arts (such as painting, sculpture, or printmaking) and not the handicraft, craft, or applied art media. The distinction was emphasized by artists of the Arts and Crafts Movement, who valued vernacular art forms as much as high forms.[4] Art schools made a distinction between the fine arts and the crafts, maintaining that a craftsperson could not be considered a practitioner of the arts.

The increasing tendency to privilege painting, and to a lesser degree sculpture, above other visual arts has been a feature of Western art as well as East Asian art. In both regions painting has been seen as relying to the highest degree on the imagination of the artist, and the furthest removed from manual labour – in Chinese painting the most highly valued styles were those of “scholar-painting”, at least in theory practiced by gentleman amateurs. The Western hierarchy of genres in visual art reflected similar attitudes.

Education and training of visual arts

Training in the visual arts has generally been through variations of the apprentice and workshop systems. In Europe the Renaissance movement to increase the prestige of the artist led to the academy system for training artists, and today most of the people who are pursuing a career in arts train in art schools at tertiary levels. Visual arts have now become an elective subject in most education systems.

Drawing

Drawing is a visual art of making an image, using any of a wide variety of tools and techniques. It generally involves making marks on a surface by applying pressure from a tool, or moving a tool across a surface using dry media such as graphite pencilspen and inkinked brushes, wax color pencilscrayonscharcoalspastels, and markers. Digital tools that simulate the effects of these are also used. The main techniques used in drawing are: line drawing, hatching, crosshatching, random hatching, scribbling, stippling, and blending. An artist who excels in drawing is referred to as a draftsman or draughtsman.

Drawing goes back at least 16,000 years to Paleolithic cave representations of animals such as those at Lascaux in France and Altamira in Spain. In ancient Egypt, ink drawings on papyrus, often depicting people, were used as models for painting or sculpture. Drawings on Greek vases, initially geometric, later developed to the human form with black-figure pottery during the 7th century BC.[5]

With paper becoming common in Europe by the 15th century, drawing was adopted by masters such as Sandro BotticelliRaphaelMichelangelo, and Leonardo da Vinci who sometimes treated drawing as an art in its own right rather than a preparatory stage for painting or sculpture.[6]

Painting

work of visual art: Mosaic of Battle of Issus Alexander against Darius

Mosaic of Battle of Issus

work of visual art: drawing of Nefertari with Isis

Nefertari with Isis

Painting taken literally is the visual art of applying pigment suspended in a carrier (or medium) and a binding agent (a glue) to a surface (support) such as papercanvas or a wall. However, when used in an artistic sense it means the use of this activity in combination with drawingcomposition, or other aesthetic considerations in order to manifest the expressive and conceptual intention of the practitioner. Painting as visual art is also used to express spiritual motifs and ideas; sites of this kind of painting range from artwork depicting mythological figures on pottery to The Sistine Chapel to the human body itself.

Origins and early history

Like drawing, painting has its documented origins in caves and on rock faces. The finest examples, believed by some to be 32,000 years old, are in the Chauvet and Lascaux caves in southern France. In shades of red, brown, yellow and black, the paintings on the walls and ceilings are of bison, cattle, horses and deer.

work of visual art: Raphael painting of Christ Falling on the Way to Calvary from 1514-1516

Raphael: Spasimo(1514-1516)

Paintings of human figures can be found in the tombs of ancient Egypt. In the great temple of Ramses IINefertari, his queen, is depicted being led by Isis.[7] The Greeks contributed to painting but much of their work has been lost. One of the best remaining representations are the Hellenistic Fayum mummy portraits. Another example is mosaic of the Battle of Issus at Pompeii, which was probably based on a Greek painting. Greek and Roman art contributed to Byzantine art in the 4th century BC, which initiated a tradition in icon painting.

The Renaissance

Apart from the illuminated manuscripts produced by monks during the Middle Ages, the next significant contribution to European art was from Italy’s renaissance painters. From Giotto in the 13th century to Leonardo da Vinci and Raphael at the beginning of the 16th century, this was the richest period in Italian art as the chiaroscuro techniques were used to create the illusion of 3-D space.[8]

work of visual art: Rembrandt painting Night Watch two men striding forward with a crowd

Rembrandt: The Night Watch

Painters in northern Europe too were influenced by the Italian school. Jan van Eyck from Belgium, Pieter Bruegel the Elder from the Netherlands and Hans Holbein the Younger from Germany are among the most successful painters of the times. They used the glazing technique with oils to achieve depth and luminosity.

work of visual art: Claude Monet painting Déjeuner sur l'herbe from 1866 artists stiing on picnic blanket

Claude Monet: Déjeuner sur l’herbe (1866)

Dutch masters

The 17th century witnessed the emergence of the great Dutch masters such as the versatile Rembrandt who was especially remembered for his portraits and Bible scenes, and Vermeer who specialized in interior scenes of Dutch life.

Baroque

The visual art of Baroque started after the Renaissance, from the late 16th century to the late 17th century. Main artists of the Baroque included Caravaggio, who made heavy use of tenebrismPeter Paul Rubens was a flemish painter who studied in Italy, worked for local churches in Antwerp and also painted a series for Marie de’ MediciAnnibale Carracci took influences from the Sistine Chapel and created the genre of illusionistic ceiling painting. Much of the development that happened in the Baroque was because of the Protestant Reformation and the resulting Counter Reformation. Much of what defines the Baroque is dramatic lighting and overall visuals.[9]

Impressionism

Impressionism as visual art began in France in the 19th century with a loose association of artists including Claude MonetPierre-Auguste Renoir and Paul Cézanne who brought a new freely brushed style to painting, often choosing to paint realistic scenes of modern life outside rather than in the studio. This was achieved through a new expression of aesthetic features demonstrated by brush strokes and the impression of reality. They achieved intense colour vibration by using pure, unmixed colours and short brush strokes. The movement influenced art as a dynamic, moving through time and adjusting to new found techniques and perception of art. Attention to detail became less of a priority in achieving, whilst exploring a biased view of landscapes and nature to the artists eye.[10][11]

work of visual art: Paul Gauguin painting The Vision After the Sermon from 1888 nuns gathering around a small angel

Paul Gauguin: The Vision After the Sermon(1888)

work of visual art: Edvard Munch painting The Scream from 1893 man at bridge with hands to ears and mouth open

Edvard Munch: The Scream (1893)

Post-impressionism

Towards the end of the 19th century, several young painters took impressionism a stage further, using geometric forms and unnatural colour to depict emotions while striving for deeper symbolism. Of particular note are Paul Gauguin, who was strongly influenced by Asian, African and Japanese art, Vincent van Gogh, a Dutchman who moved to France where he drew on the strong sunlight of the south, and Toulouse-Lautrec, remembered for his vivid paintings of night life in the Paris district of Montmartre.[12]

Symbolism, expressionism and cubism

Edvard Munch, a Norwegian artist, developed his symbolistic approach at the end of the 19th century, inspired by the French impressionist ManetThe Scream (1893), his most famous work, is widely interpreted as representing the universal anxiety of modern man. Partly as a result of Munch’s influence, the German expressionist movement originated in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century as artists such as Ernst Kirschner and Erich Heckel began to distort reality for an emotional effect. In parallel, the style known as cubism developed in France as artists focused on the volume and space of sharp structures within a composition. Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque were the leading proponents of the movement. Objects are broken up, analyzed, and re-assembled in an abstracted form. By the 1920s, the style had developed into surrealism with Dali and Magritte.[13]

Printmaking

work of visual art: Ancient Chinese engraving of female instrumentalists

Ancient Chinese engraving of female instrumentalists

Printmaking is visual art of creating, for artistic purposes, an image on a matrix that is then transferred to a two-dimensional (flat) surface by means of ink (or another form of pigmentation). Except in the case of a monotype, the same matrix can be used to produce many examples of the print.

work of visual art: Albrecht Dürer engraving Melancholia I from 1541 seated angel contemplating figure

Albrecht Dürer: Melancholia I (1541)

Historically, the major techniques (also called media) involved are woodcutline engravingetchinglithography, and screenprinting (serigraphy, silkscreening) but there are many others, including modern digital techniques. Normally, the print is printed on paper, but other mediums range from cloth and vellum to more modern materials. Major printmaking traditions include that of Japan (ukiyo-e).

European history

Prints in the Western tradition produced before about 1830 are known as old master prints. In Europe, from around 1400 AD woodcut, was used for master prints on paper by using printing techniques developed in the Byzantine and Islamic worlds. Michael Wolgemut improved German woodcut from about 1475, and Erhard Reuwich, a Dutchman, was the first to use cross-hatching. At the end of the century Albrecht Dürer brought the Western woodcut to a stage that has never been surpassed, increasing the status of the single-leaf woodcut.[14]

Chinese origin and practice

work of visual art: The Chinese Diamond Sutra, the world's oldest Woodblock printing book from 868 CE

The Chinese Diamond Sutra, the world’s oldest printed book (868 CE)

In China, the art of printmaking developed some 1,100 years ago as illustrations alongside text cut in woodblocks for printing on paper. Initially images were mainly religious but in the Song Dynasty, artists began to cut landscapes. During the Ming (1368–1644) and Qing (1616–1911) dynasties, the technique was perfected for both religious and artistic engravings.[15][16]

Development In Japan 1603-1867

work of visual art: Hokusai color print "Red Fuji southern wind clear morning" from Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji

Hokusai: “Red Fuji southern wind clear morning” from Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji

Woodblock printing as visual art in Japan (Japanese: 木版画, moku hanga) is a technique best known for its use in the ukiyo-e artistic genre; however, it was also used very widely for printing books in the same period. Woodblock printing had been used in China for centuries to print books, long before the advent of movable type, but was only widely adopted in Japan surprisingly late, during the Edo period (1603-1867). Although similar to woodcut in western printmaking in some regards, moku hanga differs greatly in that water-based inks are used (as opposed to western woodcut, which uses oil-based inks), allowing for a wide range of vivid color, glazes and color transparency.

Photography in Visual arts

Photography is the process of visual art of making pictures by means of the action of light. Light patterns reflected or emitted from objects are recorded onto a sensitive medium or storage chip through a timed exposure. The process is done through mechanical shutters or electronically timed exposure of photons into chemical processing or digitizing devices known as cameras.

The word comes from the Greek words φως phos (“light”), and γραφις graphis (“stylus”, “paintbrush”) or γραφη graphê, together meaning “drawing with light” or “representation by means of lines” or “drawing.” Traditionally, the product of photography has been called a photograph. The term photo is an abbreviation; many people also call them pictures. In digital photography, the term image has begun to replace photograph. (The term image is traditional in geometric optics.)

Filmmaking

Visual art of Filmmaking is the process of making a motion-picture, from an initial conception and research, through scriptwriting, shooting and recording, animation or other special effects, editing, sound and music work and finally distribution to an audience; it refers broadly to the creation of all types of films, embracing documentary, strains of theatre and literature in film, and poetic or experimental practices, and is often used to refer to video-based processes as well.

Computer art

Visual artists are no longer limited to traditional art media. Computers have been used as an ever more common tool in the visual arts since the 1960s. Uses include the capturing or creating of images and forms, the editing of those images and forms (including exploring multiple compositions) and the final rendering or printing (including 3D printing).

Computer art is any in which computers played a role in production or display. Such art can be an image, sound, animationvideoCD-ROMDVDvideo gamewebsitealgorithmperformance or gallery installation. Many traditional disciplines are now integrating digital technologies and, as a result, the lines between traditional works of art and new media works created using computers have been blurred. For instance, an artist may combine traditional painting with algorithmic art and other digital techniques. As a result, defining computer art by its end product can be difficult. Nevertheless, this type of art is beginning to appear in art museum exhibits, though it has yet to prove its legitimacy as a form unto itself and this technology is widely seen in contemporary art more as a tool rather than a form as with painting.

Computer usage has blurred the distinctions between illustratorsphotographersphoto editors3-D modelers, and handicraft artists. Sophisticated rendering and editing software has led to multi-skilled image developers. Photographers may become digital artists. Illustrators may become animators. Handicraft may be computer-aided or use computer-generated imagery as a template. Computer clip art usage has also made the clear distinction between visual arts and page layout less obvious due to the easy access and editing of clip art in the process of paginating a document, especially to the unskilled observer.

Plastic arts

Plastic arts is a visual art, now largely forgotten, encompassing art forms that involve physical manipulation of a plastic medium by moulding or modeling such as sculpture or ceramics. The term has also been applied to all the visual (non-literary, non-musical) arts.[17][18]

Materials that can be carved or shaped, such as stone or wood, concrete or steel, have also been included in the narrower definition, since, with appropriate tools, such materials are also capable of modulation. This use of the term “plastic” in the arts should not be confused with Piet Mondrian‘s use, nor with the movement he termed, in French and English, “Neoplasticism.”

Sculpture

Sculpture is visual art of three-dimensional artwork created by shaping or combining hard or plastic material, sound, or text and or light, commonly stone(either rock or marble), claymetalglass, or wood. Some sculptures are created directly by finding or carving; others are assembled, built together and firedweldedmolded, or cast. Sculptures are often painted.[19] A person who creates sculptures is called a sculptor.

Because sculpture involves the use of materials that can be moulded or modulated, it is considered one of the plastic arts. The majority of public art is sculpture. Many sculptures together in a garden setting may be referred to as a sculpture garden.

Sculptors do not always make sculptures by hand. With increasing technology in the 20th century and the popularity of conceptual art over technical mastery, more sculptors turned to art fabricators to produce their artworks. With fabrication, the artist creates a design and pays a fabricator to produce it. This allows sculptors to create larger and more complex sculptures out of material like cement, metal and plastic, that they would not be able to create by hand. Sculptures can also be made with 3-d printing technology.

United States of America copyright definition of visual art

In the United States, the law protecting the copyright over a piece of visual art gives a more restrictive definition of “visual art”. The following quote is from the Copyright Law of the United States of America- Chapter 1:[20]

A “work of visual art” is —
(1) a painting, drawing, print or sculpture, existing in a single copy, in a limited edition of 200 copies or fewer that are signed and consecutively numbered by the author, or, in the case of a sculpture, in multiple cast, carved, or fabricated sculptures of 200 or fewer that are consecutively numbered by the author and bear the signature or other identifying mark of the author; or
(2) a still photographic image produced for exhibition purposes only, existing in a single copy that is signed by the author, or in a limited edition of 200 copies or fewer that are signed and consecutively numbered by the author.

A work of visual art does not include —
(A)(i) any poster, map, globe, chart, technical drawing, diagram, model, applied art, motion picture or other audiovisual work, book, magazine, newspaper, periodical, data base, electronic information service, electronic publication, or similar publication;
(ii) any merchandising item or advertising, promotional, descriptive, covering, or packaging material or container;
(iii) any portion or part of any item described in clause (i) or (ii);
(B) any work made for hire; or
(C) any work not subject to copyright protection under this title.

See also

References

  1. Jump up^ An About.com article by art expert, Shelley Esaak: What Is Visual Art?
  2. Jump up^ Different Forms of Art- Applied Art. Buzzle.com. Retrieved 11 Dec 2010.
  3. Jump up^ “Centre for Arts and Design in Toronto, Canada”. Georgebrown.ca. 15 February 2011. Archived from the original on 28 October 2011. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
  4. Jump up^ Art History: Arts and Crafts Movement: (1861-1900). From World Wide Arts Resources. Retrieved 24 October 2009.
  5. Jump up^ History of Drawing. From Dibujos para Pintar. Retrieved 23 October 2009.
  6. Jump up^ “Drawing”History.com. 2006. Archived from the original on 14 March 2009. Retrieved 23 October 2009.
  7. Jump up^ History of Painting. From History World. Retrieved 23 October 2009.
  8. Jump up^ History of Renaissance Painting. From ART 340 Painting. Retrieved 24 October 2009.
  9. Jump up^https://www.ashgate.com/pdf/SamplePages/Rethinking_the_Baroque_Intro.pdf
  10. Jump up^ http://www.impressionism.org
  11. Jump up^ Impressionism. Webmuseum, Paris. Retrieved 24 October 2009
  12. Jump up^ Post-Impressionism. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 25 October 2009.
  13. Jump up^ Modern Art Movements. Irish Art Encyclopedia. Retrieved 25 October 2009.
  14. Jump up^ The Printed Image in the West: History and Techniques. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 25 October 2009.
  15. Jump up^ Engraving in Chinese Art. From Engraving Review. Retrieved 23 October 2009.
  16. Jump up^ The History of Engraving in China. From ChinaVista. Retrieved 25 October 2009.
  17. Jump up^ ART TERMINOLOGY at KSU[dead link]
  18. Jump up^ “Merriam-Webster Online (entry for “plastic arts”)”. Merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 2011-10-30.
  19. Jump up^ Gods in Color: Painted Sculpture of Classical Antiquity 22 September 2007 Through 20 January 2008, The Arthur M. Sackler Museum Archived 4 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
  20. Jump up^ “Copyright Law of the United States of America- Chapter 1 (101. Definitions)”. Copyright.gov. Retrieved 2011-10-30.

Bibliography

  • Barnes, A. C., The Art in Painting, 3rd ed., 1937, Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc., NY.
  • Bukumirovic, D. (1998). Maga Magazinovic. Biblioteka Fatalne srpkinje knj. br. 4. Beograd: Narodna knj.
  • Fazenda, M. J. (1997). Between the pictorial and the expression of ideas: the plastic arts and literature in the dance of Paula Massano. N.p.
  • Gerón, C. (2000). Enciclopedia de las artes plásticas dominicanas: 1844-2000. 4th ed. Dominican Republic s.n.
  • Oliver Grau (Ed.): MediaArtHistories. MIT-Press, Cambridge 2007. with Rudolf ArnheimBarbara StaffordSean CubittW. J. T. MitchellLev ManovichChristiane PaulPeter Weibel a.o. Rezensionen
  • Laban, R. V. (1976). The language of movement: a guidebook to choreutics. Boston: Plays.
  • La Farge, O. (1930). Plastic prayers: dances of the Southwestern Indians. N.p.
  • Restany, P. (1974). Plastics in arts. Paris, New York: N.p.
  • University of Pennsylvania. (1969). Plastics and new art. Philadelphia: The Falcon Pr.

External links

Art of Europe – Western Art

Pierre MignardCliomuse of heroic poetry and history, 17th century

The art of Europe or Western art encompasses the history of visual art in Europe. European prehistoric art started as mobile rock, and cave painting art, and was characteristic of the period between the Paleolithic and the Iron Age.[1]

Written histories of European art often begin with the art of the Ancient Middle East, and the Ancient Aegean civilisations, dating from the 3rd millennium BC. Parallel with these significant cultures, art of one form or another existed all over Europe, wherever there were people, leaving signs such as carvings, decorated artifacts and huge standing stones. However a consistent pattern of artistic development within Europe becomes clear only with the art of Ancient Greece, adopted and transformed by Rome and carried; with the Empire, across much of EuropeNorth Africa and the Middle East.

The influence of the art of the Classical period waxed and waned throughout the next two thousand years, seeming to slip into a distant memory in parts of the Medieval period, to re-emerge in the Renaissance, suffer a period of what some early art historians viewed as “decay” during the Baroque period,[2] to reappear in a refined form in Neo-Classicism and to be reborn in Post-Modernism.

Before the 1800s, the Christian church was a major influence upon European art, the commissions of the Church, architectural, painterly and sculptural, providing the major source of work for artists. The history of the Church was very much reflected in the history of art, during this period. In the same period of time there was renewed interest in heroes and heroines, tales of mythological gods and goddesses, great wars, and bizarre creatures which were not connected to religion.[3]

Secularism has influenced European art since the Classical period, while most art of the last 200 years has been produced without reference to religion and often with no particular ideology at all. On the other hand, European art has often been influenced by politics of one kind or another, of the state, of the patron and of the artist.

European art is arranged into a number of stylistic periods, which, historically, overlap each other as different styles flourished in different areas. Broadly the periods are, ClassicalByzantineMedievalGothicRenaissanceBaroqueRococoNeoclassicalModern and Postmodern.[3]

Prehistoric art

European prehistoric art is an important part of the European cultural heritage.[4] Prehistoric art history is usually divided into four main periods: Stone ageNeolithicBronze age, and Iron age. Most of the remaining artifacts of this period are small sculptures and cave paintings.

Much surviving prehistoric art is small portable sculptures, with a small group of female Venus figurines such as the Venus of Willendorf(24,000–22,000 BC) found across central Europe;[5] the 30 cm tall Löwenmensch figurine of about 30,000 BCE has hardly any pieces that can be related to it. The Swimming Reindeer of about 11,000 BCE is one of the finest of a number of Magdalenian carvings in bone or antler of animals in the art of the Upper Paleolithic, though they are outnumbered by engraved pieces, which are sometimes classified as sculpture.[6] With the beginning of the Mesolithic in Europe figurative sculpture greatly reduced,[7] and remained a less common element in art than relief decoration of practical objects until the Roman period, despite some works such as the Gundestrup cauldronfrom the European Iron Age and the Bronze Age Trundholm sun chariot.[8]

The oldest European cave art dates back 40,800, and can be found in the El Castillo Cave in Spain.[9] Other cave painting sites include LascauxCave of AltamiraGrotte de CussacPech MerleCave of NiauxChauvet CaveFont-de-Gaume, Creswell Crags, Nottinghamshire, England, (Cave etchings and bas-reliefs discovered in 2003), Coliboaia cave from Romania (considered the oldest cave painting in central Europe)[10] and Magura,[1] Belogradchik, Bulgaria.[11] Rock painting was also performed on cliff faces, but fewer of those have survived because of erosion. One well-known example is the rock paintings of Astuvansalmi in the Saimaa area of Finland. When Marcelino Sanz de Sautuola first encountered the Magdalenian paintings of the Altamira cave, Cantabria, Spain in 1879, the academics of the time considered them hoaxes. Recent reappraisals and numerous additional discoveries have since demonstrated their authenticity, while at the same time stimulating interest in the artistry of Upper Palaeolithic peoples. Cave paintings, undertaken with only the most rudimentary tools, can also furnish valuable insight into the culture and beliefs of that era.

The Rock art of the Iberian Mediterranean Basin represents a very different style, with the human figure the main focus, often seen in large groups, with battles, dancing and hunting all represented, as well as other activities and details such as clothing. The figures are generally rather sketchily depicted in thin paint, with the relationships between the groups of humans and animals more carefully depicted than individual figures. Other less numerous groups of rock art, many engraved rather than painted, show similar characteristics. The Iberian examples are believed to date from a long period perhaps covering the Upper Paleolithic, Mesolithic and early Neolithic.

Prehistoric Celtic art comes from much of Iron Age Europe and survives mainly in the form of high-status metalwork skillfully decorated with complex, elegant and mostly abstract designs, often using curving and spiral forms. There are human heads and some fully represented animals, but full-length human figures at any size are so rare that their absence may represent a religious taboo. As the Romans conquered Celtic territories, it almost entirely vanishes, but the style continued in limited use in the British Isles, and with the coming of Christianity revived there in the Insular style of the Early Middle Ages.

Ancient Classical art

Minoan Ceramic Art

The Minoan culture is regarded as the oldest civilization in Europe.[12] The Minoan culture existed in Crete and consisted of four periods: Prepalatial, Protopalatial, Neopalatial, and the Postpalatial period between 3650 BC and 1100 BC. Not much of the art remained from the Prepalatial times, and most of artefacts still existing today are Cycladic statuettes and pottery fragments. The most prosperous period of the Cretan civilization was Neopalatial period and most of the artefacts are from this era. A large number of artefacts from the Protopalatial can be seen today in Cretan museums. Pottery – most popular in the Protopalatial period (1900-1700 BC) – was characterized by thin walled vessels, subtle, symmetrical shapes, elegant spouts, and decorations, and dynamic lines. Dark and light values were often contrasted in Minoan pottery. The spontaneity and fluidity of the Protopalatial period later were transformed to a more stylized form of art with dissociation of naturalism in the Neopalatial period.
The palaces served as organizational, commercial, artistic, worshipping, and agricultural centres in the Cretan civilization. Cretan palaces were built without defensive walls and exhibited a central courtyard which was embraced by a number of buildings. The central courtyard served as the main meeting place of the people. The palaces had throne rooms, cult chambers, and theatres where people could gather at special events. Columns and staircases were part of the artistic expression and it is believed that they served as metaphorical elements.
The Minoan palaces are richly painted with paintings. Minoan painting was unique in that it used wet fresco techniques; it was characterized by small waists, fluidity, and vitality of the figures and was seasoned with elasticity, spontaneity, vitality, and high-contrasting colours.
Not much of the sculpture survived from the Minoan civilization. The best known example of sculptures is the Snake Goddess figurine. The sculpture depicts a goddess or a high priestess holding a snake in both hands, dressed in traditional Minoan attire, cloth covering the whole body and leaving the breasts exposed. Exquisite metal work was also a characteristic of the Minoan art. Minoan metal masters worked with imported gold and copper and mastered techniques of wax casting, embossinggilding, nielo, and granulation.[13]

Ancient Greece had great painters, great sculptors, and great architects. The Parthenon is an example of their architecture that has lasted to modern days. Greek marble sculpture is often described as the highest form of Classical art. Painting on the pottery of Ancient Greece and ceramics gives a particularly informative glimpse into the way society in Ancient Greece functioned. Black-figure vase painting and Red-figure vase painting gives many surviving examples of what Greek painting was. Some famous Greek painters on wooden panels who are mentioned in texts are ApellesZeuxis and Parrhasius, however no examples of Ancient Greek panel painting survive, only written descriptions by their contemporaries or by later Romans. Zeuxis lived in 5–6 BC and was said to be the first to use sfumato. According to Pliny the Elder, the realism of his paintings was such that birds tried to eat the painted grapes. Apelles is described as the greatest painter of Antiquity for perfect technique in drawing, brilliant color and modeling.

Mummy portrait of a young girl, 2nd century AD, Louvre.

Roman art was influenced by Greece and can in part be taken as a descendant of ancient Greek painting and sculpture, but was also strongly influenced by the more local Etruscan art of Italy. Roman sculpture, is primarily portraiture derived from the upper classes of society as well as depictions of the gods. However, Roman painting does have important unique characteristics. Among surviving Roman paintings are wall paintings, many from villas in Campania, in Southern Italy, especially at Pompeii and Herculaneum. Such painting can be grouped into four main “styles” or periods[14] and may contain the first examples of trompe-l’oeil, pseudo-perspective, and pure landscape.[15]

Almost all of the surviving painted portraits from the Ancient world are a large number of coffin-portraits of bust form found in the Late Antiquecemetery of Al-Fayum. They give an idea of the quality that the finest ancient work must have had. A very small number of miniatures from Late Antique illustrated books also survive, and a rather larger number of copies of them from the Early Medieval period. Early Christian art grew out of Roman popular, and later Imperial, art and adapted its iconography from these sources.

Medieval

Most surviving art from the Medieval period was religious in focus, often funded by the Church, powerful ecclesiastical individuals such as bishops, communal groups such as abbeys, or wealthy secular patrons. Many had specific liturgical functions—processional crosses and altarpieces, for example.

One of the central questions about Medieval art concerns its lack of realism. A great deal of knowledge of perspective in art and understanding of the human figure was lost with the fall of Rome. But realism was not the primary concern of Medieval artists. They were simply trying to send a religious message, a task which demands clear iconic images instead of precisely rendered ones.

Time Period: 6th century to 15th century

Byzantine

Helios in His Chariot.jpg

Byzantine art overlaps with or merges with what we call Early Christian art until the iconoclasm period of 730-843 when the vast majority of artwork with figures was destroyed; so little remains that today any discovery sheds new understanding. After 843 until 1453 there is a clear Byzantine art tradition. It is often the finest art of the Middle Ages in terms of quality of material and workmanship, with production centered on Constantinople. Byzantine art’s crowning achievement were the monumental frescos and mosaics inside domed churches, most of which have not survived due to natural disasters and the appropriation of churches to mosques.

Early Medieval art

KellsFol292rIncipJohn.jpg

Migration period art is a general term for the art of the “barbarian” peoples who moved into formerly Roman territories. Celtic art in the 7th and 8th centuries saw a fusion with Germanic traditions through contact with the Anglo-Saxons creating what is called the Hiberno-Saxon style or Insular art, which was to be highly influential on the rest of the Middle Ages. Merovingian art describes the art of the Franks before about 800, when Carolingian art combined insular influences with a self-conscious classical revival, developing into Ottonian artAnglo-Saxon art is the art of England after the Insular period. Illuminated manuscripts contain nearly all the surviving painting of the period, but architecture, metalwork and small carved work in wood or ivory were also important media.

Romanesque

WinchesterBibleJeremiah(cover).GIF

Romanesque art refers to the period from about 1000 to the rise of Gothic art in the 12th century. This was a period of increasing prosperity, and the first to see a coherent style used across Europe, from Scandinavia to Switzerland. Romanesque art is vigorous and direct, was originally brightly coloured, and is often very sophisticated. Stained glass and enamel on metalwork became important media, and larger sculptures in the round developed, although high relief was the principal technique. Its architecture is dominated by thick walls, and round-headed windows and arches, with much carved decoration.

Gothic

Folio 79r - Pentecostes excerpt.jpg

Gothic art is a variable term depending on the craft, place and time. The term originated with Gothic architecture in 1140, but Gothic painting did not appear until around 1200 (this date has many qualifications), when it diverged from Romanesque style. Gothic sculpture was born in France in 1144 with the renovation of the Abbey Church of S. Denis and spread throughout Europe, by the 13th century it had become the international style, replacing Romanesque. International Gothic describes Gothic art from about 1360 to 1430, after which Gothic art merges into Renaissance art at different times in different places. During this period forms such as painting, in fresco and on panel, become newly important, and the end of the period includes new media such as prints.

Renaissance

Leonardo da Vinci‘s Vitruvian Man(Uomo Vitruviano) (c. 1490), a seminal work from the Renaissance. The drawing is inspired and subsequently named after the 1st century BC Roman architect-author Vitruvius and his notions on the “ideal” human body proportions, found in his De architectura.[16][17]The drawing highlights the movement’s fascination with Graeco-Roman civilisations and appropriation of classical art, as well as his pursuit for the correlation between body structure and nature.[17]

The Renaissance is characterized by a focus on the arts of Ancient Greece and Rome, which led to many changes in both the technical aspects of painting and sculpture, as well as to their subject matter. It began in Italy, a country rich in Roman heritage as well as material prosperity to fund artists. During the Renaissance, painters began to enhance the realism of their work by using new techniques in perspective, thus representing three dimensions more authentically. Artists also began to use new techniques in the manipulation of light and darkness, such as the tone contrast evident in many of Titian‘s portraits and the development of sfumato and chiaroscuro by Leonardo da VinciSculptors, too, began to rediscover many ancient techniques such as contrapposto. Following with the humanist spirit of the age, art became more secular in subject matter, depicting ancient mythology in addition to Christian themes. This genre of art is often referred to as Renaissance Classicism. In the North, the most important Renaissance innovation was the widespread use of oil paints, which allowed for greater colour and intensity.

From Gothic to the Renaissance

During the late 13th century and early 14th century, much of the painting in Italy was Byzantine in Character, notably that of Duccio of Siena and Cimabue of Florence, while Pietro Cavallini in Rome was more Gothic in style.

In 1290 Giotto began painting in a manner that was less traditional and more based upon observation of nature. His famous cycle at the Scrovegni ChapelPadua, is seen as the beginnings of a Renaissance style.

Other painters of the 14th century were carried the Gothic style to great elaboration and detail. Notable among these painters are Simone Martini and Gentile da Fabriano.

In the Netherlands, the technique of painting in oils rather than tempera, led itself to a form of elaboration that was not dependent upon the application of gold leaf and embossing, but upon the minute depiction of the natural world. The art of painting textures with great realism evolved at this time. Dutch painters such as Jan van Eyck and Hugo van der Goes were to have great influence on Late Gothic and Early Renaissance painting.

Early Renaissance

The ideas of the Renaissance first emerged in the city-state of FlorenceItaly. The sculptor Donatello returned to classical techniques such as contrapposto and classical subjects like the unsupported nude—his second sculpture of David was the first free-standing bronze nude created in Europe since the Roman Empire. The sculptor and architect Brunelleschi studied the architectural ideas of ancient Roman buildings for inspiration. Masaccioperfected elements like composition, individual expression, and human form to paint frescoes, especially those in the Brancacci Chapel, of surprising elegance, drama, and emotion.

A remarkable number of these major artists worked on different portions of the Florence Cathedral. Brunelleschi’s dome for the cathedral was one of the first truly revolutionary architectural innovations since the Gothic flying buttress. Donatello created many of its sculptures. Giotto and Lorenzo Ghiberti also contributed to the cathedral.

Albrecht Dürer‘s Praying Hands(Betende Hände) (c. 1508), a drawing belonging to the Northern Renaissance artistic tradition, of which Dürer is a formidable figure.[18]

High Renaissance

High Renaissance artists include such figures as Leonardo da VinciMichelangelo Buonarroti, and Raffaello Sanzio.

The 15th-century artistic developments in Italy (for example, the interest in perspectival systems, in depicting anatomy, and in classical cultures) matured during the 16th century, accounting for the designations “Early Renaissance” for the 15th century and “High Renaissance” for the 16th century. Although no singular style characterizes the High Renaissance, the art of those most closely associated with this Period—Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, Michelangelo, and Titian—exhibits an astounding mastery, both technical and aesthetic. High Renaissance artists created works of such authority that generations of later artists relied on these artworks for instruction. These exemplary artistic creations further elevated the prestige of artists. Artists could claim divine inspiration, thereby raising visual art to a status formerly given only to poetry. Thus, painters, sculptors, and architects came into their own, successfully claiming for their work a high position among the fine arts. In a sense, 16th- century masters created a new profession with its own rights of expression and its own venerable character.

Northern art up to the Renaissance

Early Netherlandish painting developed (but did not strictly invent) the technique of oil painting to allow greater control in painting minute detail with realism—Jan van Eyck (1366–1441) was a figure in the movement from illuminated manuscripts to panel paintings.

Hieronymus Bosch (1450?–1516), a Dutch painter, is another important figure in the Northern Renaissance. In his paintings, he used religious themes, but combined them with grotesque fantasies, colourful imagery, and peasant folk legends. His paintings often reflect the confusion and anguish associated with the end of the Middle Ages.

Albrecht Dürer introduced Italian Renaissance style to Germany at the end of the 15th century, and dominated German Renaissance art.

Time Period:

  • Italian Renaissance: Late 14th century to Early 16th century
  • Northern Renaissance: 16th century

Mannerism, Baroque, and Rococo

Differences between Baroque and Rococo art
Baroque art was characterised by strongly religious and political themes; common characteristics included rich colours with a strong light and dark contrast. Paintings were elaborate, emotional and dramatic in nature.
Rococo art was characterised by lighter, often jocular themes; common characteristics included pale, creamy colours, florid decorations and a penchant for bucolic landscapes. Paintings were more ornate than their Baroque counterpart, and usually graceful, playful and light-hearted in nature.

In European art, Renaissance Classicism spawned two different movements—Mannerism and the Baroque. Mannerism, a reaction against the idealist perfection of Classicism, employed distortion of light and spatial frameworks in order to emphasize the emotional content of a painting and the emotions of the painter. The work of El Greco is a particularly clear example of Mannerism in painting during the late 16th, early 17th centuries. Northern Mannerism took longer to develop, and was largely a movement of the last half of the 16th century. Baroque art took the representationalism of the Renaissance to new heights, emphasizing detail, movement, lighting, and drama in their search for beauty. Perhaps the best known Baroque painters are CaravaggioRembrandtPeter Paul Rubens, and Diego Velázquez.

A rather different art developed out of northern realist traditions in 17th century Dutch Golden Age painting, which had very little religious art, and little history painting, instead playing a crucial part in developing secular genres such as still lifegenre paintings of everyday scenes, and landscape painting. While the Baroque nature of Rembrandt’s art is clear, the label is less use for Vermeer and many other Dutch artists. Flemish Baroque painting shared a part in this trend, while also continuing to produce the traditional categories.

Baroque art is often seen as part of the Counter-Reformation—the artistic element of the revival of spiritual life in the Roman Catholic Church. Additionally, the emphasis that Baroque art placed on grandeur is seen as Absolutist in nature. Religious and political themes were widely explored within the Baroque artistic context, and both paintings and sculptures were characterised by a strong element of drama, emotion and theatricality. Famous Baroque artists include Caravaggio or Rubens.[19] Baroque art was particularly ornate and elaborate in nature, often using rich, warm colours with dark undertones. Pomp and grandeur were important elements of the Baroque artistic movement in general, as can be seen when Louis XIV said, “I am grandeur incarnate”; many Baroque artists served kings who tried to realize this goal. Baroque art in many ways was similar to Renaissance art; as a matter of fact, the term was initially used in a derogative manner to describe post-Renaissance art and architecture which was over-elaborate.[19]Baroque art can be seen as a more elaborate and dramatic re-adaptation of late Renaissance art.

By the 18th century, however, Baroque art was falling out of fashion as many deemed it too melodramatic and also gloomy, and it developed into the Rococo, which emerged in France. Rococo art was even more elaborate than the Baroque, but it was less serious and more playful.[20] Whilst the Baroque used rich, strong colours, Rococo used pale, creamier shades. The artistic movement no longer placed an emphasis on politics and religion, focusing instead on lighter themes such as romance, celebration, and appreciation of nature. Rococo art also contrasted the Baroque as it often refused symmetry in favor of asymmetrical designs. Furthermore, it sought inspiration from the artistic forms and ornamentation of Far Eastern Asia, resulting in the rise in favour of porcelain figurines and chinoiserie in general.[21] The 18th century style flourished for a short while; nevertheless, the Rococo style soon fell out of favor, being seen by many as a gaudy and superficial movement emphasizing aesthetics over meaning. Neoclassicism in many ways developed as a counter movement of the Rococo, the impetus being a sense of disgust directed towards the latter’s florid qualities.

Time Period:

Neoclassicism, Romanticism, Academism and Realism

Neoclassical art was characterised by an emphasis on simplicity, order and idealism. It was inspired by different classical themes.

Throughout the 18th century, a counter movement opposing the Rococo sprang up in different parts of Europe, commonly known as Neoclassicism. It despised the perceived superficiality and frivolity of Rococo art, and desired for a return to the simplicity, order and ‘purism’ of classical antiquity, especially ancient Greece and Rome. The movement was in part also influenced by the Renaissance, which itself was strongly influenced by classical art. Neoclassicism was the artistic component of the intellectual movement known as the Enlightenment; the Enlightenment was idealistic, and put its emphasis on objectivity, reason and empirical truth. Neoclassicism had become widespread in Europe throughout the 18th century, especially in the United Kingdom, which saw great works of Neoclassical architecture spring up during this period; Neoclassicism’s fascination with classical antiquity can be seen in the popularity of the Grand Tour during this decade, where wealthy aristocrats travelled to the ancient ruins of Italy and Greece. Nevertheless, a defining moment for Neoclassicism came during the French Revolution in the late 18th century; in France, Rococo art was replaced with the preferred Neoclassical art, which was seen as more serious than the former movement. In many ways, Neoclassicism can be seen as a political movement as well as an artistic and cultural one.[22] Neoclassical art places an emphasis on order, symmetry and classical simplicity; common themes in Neoclassical art include courage and war, as were commonly explored in ancient Greek and Roman art. IngresCanova, and Jacques-Louis David are among the best-known neoclassicists.[23]

Just as Mannerism rejected Classicism, so did Romanticism reject the ideas of the Enlightenment and the aesthetic of the Neoclassicists. Romanticism rejected the highly objective and ordered nature of Neoclassicism, and opted for a more individual and emotional approach to the arts.[24] Romanticism placed an emphasis on nature, especially when aiming to portray the power and beauty of the natural world, and emotions, and sought a highly personal approach to art. Romantic art was about individual feelings, not common themes, such as in Neoclassicism; in such a way, Romantic art often used colours in order to express feelings and emotion.[24] Similarly to Neoclassicism, Romantic art took much of its inspiration from ancient Greek and Roman art and mythology, yet, unlike Neoclassical, this inspiration was primarily used as a way to create symbolism and imagery. Romantic art also takes much of its aesthetic qualities from medievalism and Gothicism, as well as mythology and folklore. Among the greatest Romantic artists were Eugène DelacroixFrancisco GoyaJ.M.W. TurnerJohn ConstableCaspar David FriedrichThomas Cole, and William Blake.[23]

Most artists attempted to take a centrist approach which adopted different features of Neoclassicist and Romanticist styles, in order to synthesize them. The different attempts took place within the French Academy, and collectively are called Academic artAdolphe William Bouguereau is considered a chief example of this stream of art.

In the early 19th century the face of Europe, however, became radically altered by industrialization. Poverty, squalor, and desperation were to be the fate of the new working class created by the “revolution”. In response to these changes going on in society, the movement of Realism emerged. Realism sought to accurately portray the conditions and hardships of the poor in the hopes of changing society. In contrast with Romanticism, which was essentially optimistic about mankind, Realism offered a stark vision of poverty and despair. Similarly, while Romanticism glorified nature, Realism portrayed life in the depths of an urban wasteland. Like Romanticism, Realism was a literary as well as an artistic movement. The great Realist painters include Jean-Baptiste-Siméon ChardinGustave CourbetJean-François MilletCamille CorotHonoré DaumierÉdouard ManetEdgar Degas (both considered as Impressionists), and Thomas Eakins, among others.

The response of architecture to industrialisation, in stark contrast to the other arts, was to veer towards historicism. Although the railway stations built during this period are often considered the truest reflections of its spirit – they are sometimes called “the cathedrals of the age” – the main movements in architecture during the Industrial Age were revivals of styles from the distant past, such as the Gothic Revival. Related movements were the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, who attempted to return art to its state of “purity” prior to Raphael, and the Arts and Crafts Movement, which reacted against the impersonality of mass-produced goods and advocated a return to medieval craftsmanship.

Time Period:

Modern art

Impressionism was known for its usage of light and movement in its paintings.

Out of the naturalist ethic of Realism grew a major artistic movement, Impressionism. The Impressionists pioneered the use of light in painting as they attempted to capture light as seen from the human eye. Edgar DegasÉdouard ManetClaude MonetCamille Pissarro, and Pierre-Auguste Renoir, were all involved in the Impressionist movement. As a direct outgrowth of Impressionism came the development of Post-ImpressionismPaul CézanneVincent van GoghPaul GauguinGeorges Seurat are the best known Post-Impressionists.

Following the Impressionists and the Post-Impressionists came Fauvism, often considered the first “modern” genre of art. Just as the Impressionists revolutionized light, so did the fauvists rethink color, painting their canvases in bright, wild hues. After the Fauvists, modern art began to develop in all its forms, ranging from Expressionism, concerned with evoking emotion through objective works of art, to Cubism, the art of transposing a three-dimensional reality onto a flat canvas, to Abstract art. These new art forms pushed the limits of traditional notions of “art” and corresponded to the similar rapid changes that were taking place in human society, technology, and thought.

Surrealism is often classified as a form of Modern Art. However, the Surrealists themselves have objected to the study of surrealism as an era in art history, claiming that it oversimplifies the complexity of the movement (which they say is not an artistic movement), misrepresents the relationship of surrealism to aesthetics, and falsely characterizes ongoing surrealism as a finished, historically encapsulated era. Other forms of Modern art (some of which border on Contemporary art) include:

Time Period: First half of the 20th century

Contemporary art and Postmodern art

Modern art foreshadowed several characteristics of what would later be definied as postmodern art; as a matter of fact, several modern art movements can often be classified as both modern and postmodern, such as pop art. Postmodern art, for instance, places a strong emphasis on irony, parody and humour in general; modern art started to develop a more ironic approach to art which would later advance in a postmodern context. Postmodern art sees the blurring between the high and fine arts with low-end and commercial art; modern art started to experiment with this blurring.[24] Recent developments in art have been characterised by a significant expansion of what can now deemed to be art, in terms of materials, media, activity and concept. Conceptual art in particular has had a wide influence. This started literally as the replacement of concept for a made object, one of the intentions of which was to refute the commodification of art. However, it now usually refers to an artwork where there is an object, but the main claim for the work is made for the thought process that has informed it. The aspect of commercialism has returned to the work.

There has also been an increase in art referring to previous movements and artists, and gaining validity from that reference.

Postmodernism in art, which has grown since the 1960s, differs from Modernism in as much as Modern art movements were primarily focused on their own activities and values, while Postmodernism uses the whole range of previous movements as a reference point. This has by definition generated a relativistic outlook, accompanied by irony and a certain disbelief in values, as each can be seen to be replaced by another. Another result of this has been the growth of commercialism and celebrity. Postmodern art has questioned common rules and guidelines of what is regarded as ‘fine art‘, merging low art with the fine arts until none is fully distinguishable.[25][26] Before the advent of postmodernism, the fine arts were characterised by a form of aesthetic quality, elegance, craftsmanship, finesse and intellectual stimulation which was intended to appeal to the upper or educated classes; this distinguished high art from low art, which, in turn, was seen as tacky, kitsch, easily made and lacking in much or any intellectual stimulation, art which was intended to appeal to the masses. Postmodern art blurred these distinctions, bringing a strong element of kitsch, commercialism and campness into contemporary fine art;[24] what is nowadays seen as fine art may have been seen as low art before postmodernism revolutionised the concept of what high or fine art truly is.[24] In addition, the postmodern nature of contemporary art leaves a lot of space for individualism within the art scene; for instance, postmodern art often takes inspiration from past artistic movements, such as Gothic or Baroque art, and both juxtaposes and recycles styles from these past periods in a different context.[24]

Some surrealists in particular Joan Miró, who called for the “murder of painting” (In numerous interviews dating from the 1930s onwards, Miró expressed contempt for conventional painting methods and his desire to “kill”, “murder”, or “rape” them in favor of more contemporary means of expression).[27] have denounced or attempted to “supersede” painting, and there have also been other anti-painting trends among artistic movements, such as that of Dada and conceptual art. The trend away from painting in the late 20th century has been countered by various movements, for example the continuation of Minimal ArtLyrical AbstractionPop ArtOp ArtNew RealismPhotorealismNeo GeoNeo-expressionism, and Stuckism and various other important and influential painterly directions.

See also

References

  1. Jump up to:a b Oosterbeek, Luíz. “European Prehistoric Art”Europeart. Retrieved 4 December2012.
  2. Jump up^ Banister Fletcher excluded nearly all Baroque buildings from his mammoth tome A History of Architecture on the Comparative Method. The publishers eventually rectified this.
  3. Jump up to:a b “Art of Europe”Saint Louis Art Museum. Slam. Retrieved 4 December 2012.
  4. Jump up^ Oosterbeek, Luíz. “European Prehistoric Art”Europeart. Retrieved 4 December2012.
  5. Jump up^ Sandars, 8-16, 29-31
  6. Jump up^ Hahn, Joachim, “Prehistoric Europe, §II: Palaeolithic 3. Portable art” in Oxford Art Online, accessed August 24, 2012; Sandars, 37-40
  7. Jump up^ Sandars, 75-80
  8. Jump up^ Sandars, 253-257, 183-185
  9. Jump up^ Kwong, Matt. “Oldest cave-man art in Europe dates back 40,800 years”. CBC News. Retrieved 4 December 2012.
  10. Jump up^ “Romanian Cave May Boast Central Europe’s Oldest Cave Art | Science/AAAS | News”. News.sciencemag.org. 2010-06-21. Retrieved 2013-08-25.
  11. Jump up^ Gunther, Michael. “Art of Prehistoric Europe”. Retrieved 4 December 2012.
  12. Jump up^ Chaniotis, Angelos. “Ancient Crete”Oxford Bibliographies. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2 January 2013.
  13. Jump up^ “Minoan art”Greek art. Ancient-Greece.org. Retrieved 2 January 2013.
  14. Jump up^ “Roman Painting”. Art-and-archaeology.com. Retrieved 2013-08-25.
  15. Jump up^ “Roman Painting”Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 19 October 2013.
  16. Jump up^ http://leonardodavinci.stanford.edu/submissions/clabaugh/history/leonardo.html
  17. Jump up to:a b http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/leonardo/gallery/vitruvian.shtml
  18. Jump up^ http://www.hektoeninternational.org/Durers_praying_hands.html
  19. Jump up to:a b “Baroque Art”. Arthistory-famousartists-paintings.com. 2013-07-24. Retrieved 2013-08-25.
  20. Jump up^ “Ancien Regime Rococo”. Bc.edu. Retrieved 2013-08-25.
  21. Jump up^ http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/chinoiserie.aspx#3-1E1:chinoise-full
  22. Jump up^ “Art in Neoclassicism”. Artsz.org. 2008-02-26. Retrieved 2013-08-25.
  23. Jump up to:a b James J. Sheehan, “Art and Its Publics, c. 1800,” United and Diversity in European Culture c. 1800, ed. Tim Blanning and Hagen Schulze (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006), 5-18.
  24. Jump up to:a b c d e f “General Introduction to Postmodernism”. Cla.purdue.edu. Retrieved 2013-08-25.
  25. Jump up^ Ideas About Art, Desmond, Kathleen K. [1] John Wiley & Sons, 2011, p.148
  26. Jump up^ International postmodernism: theory and literary practice, Bertens, Hans [2], Routledge, 1997, p.236
  27. Jump up^ M. Rowell, Joan Mirό: Selected Writings and Interviews (London: Thames & Hudson, 1987) pp. 114–116.

Bibliography

  • Sandars, Nancy K., Prehistoric Art in Europe, Penguin (Pelican, now Yale, History of Art), 1968 (nb 1st edn.; early datings now superseded)

External links

Art

Clockwise from upper left: a self-portrait by Vincent van Gogh; a female ancestor figure by a Chokwe artist; detail from The Birth of Venus by Sandro Botticelli; and an Okinawan Shisa lion.

Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts (artworks), expressing the author’s imaginative or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power.[1][2] In their most general form these activities include the production of works of art, the criticism of art, the study of the history of art, and the aesthetic dissemination of art.

The oldest documented forms of art are visual arts, which include creation of images or objects in fields including today painting, sculpture, printmaking, photography, and other visual media.

Architecture is often included as one of the visual arts; however, like the decorative arts, or advertising,[3] it involves the creation of objects where the practical considerations of use are essential—in a way that they usually are not in a painting, for example.

Music, theatre, film, dance, and other performing arts, as well as literature and other media such as interactive media, are included in a broader definition of art or the arts.[1][4] Until the 17th century, art referred to any skill or mastery and was not differentiated from crafts or sciences.

In modern usage after the 17th century, where aesthetic considerations are paramount, the fine arts are separated and distinguished from acquired skills in general, such as the decorative or applied arts.

Art may be characterized in terms of mimesis (its representation of reality), narrative (storytelling), expression, communication of emotion, or other qualities. During the Romantic period, art came to be seen as “a special faculty of the human mind to be classified with religion and science”.[5]

Though the definition of what constitutes art is disputed[6][7][8] and has changed over time, general descriptions mention an idea of imaginative or technical skill stemming from human agency[9] and creation.[10]

The nature of art and related concepts, such as creativity and interpretation, are explored in a branch of philosophy known as aesthetics.[11]

Creative art and fine art

Works of art can tell stories or simply express an aesthetic truth or feeling. Panorama of a section of A Thousand Li of Mountains and Rivers, a 12th-century painting by Song dynasty artist Wang Ximeng.

In the perspective of the history of art,[10] artistic works have existed for almost as long as humankind: from early pre-historic art to contemporary art; however, some theories restrict the concept of “artistic works” to modern Western societies.[12] One early sense of the definition of art is closely related to the older Latin meaning, which roughly translates to “skill” or “craft,” as associated with words such as “artisan.” English words derived from this meaning include artifactartificialartificemedical arts, and military arts. However, there are many other colloquial uses of the word, all with some relation to its etymology.

20th-century Rwandan bottle. Artistic works may serve practical functions, in addition to their decorative value.

Few modern scholars have been more divided than Plato and Aristotle on the question concerning the importance of art, with Aristotle strongly supporting art in general and Plato generally being opposed to its relative importance.

Several dialogues in Plato tackle questions about art: Socrates says that poetry is inspired by the muses, and is not rational. He speaks approvingly of this, and other forms of divine madness (drunkenness, eroticism, and dreaming) in the Phaedrus (265a–c), and yet in the Republic wants to outlaw Homer’s great poetic art, and laughter as well. In Ion, Socrates gives no hint of the disapproval of Homer that he expresses in the Republic. The dialogue Ion suggests that Homer‘s Iliad functioned in the ancient Greek world as the Bible does today in the modern Christian world: as divinely inspired literary art that can provide moral guidance, if only it can be properly interpreted.

With regards to the literary art and the musical arts, Aristotle considered epic poetry, tragedy, comedy, dithyrambic poetry and music to be mimetic or imitative art, each varying in imitation by medium, object, and manner.[13] For example, music imitates with the media of rhythm and harmony, whereas dance imitates with rhythm alone, and poetry with language. The forms also differ in their object of imitation. Comedy, for instance, is a dramatic imitation of men worse than average; whereas tragedy imitates men slightly better than average. Lastly, the forms differ in their manner of imitation—through narrative or character, through change or no change, and through drama or no drama.[14] Aristotle believed that imitation is natural to mankind and constitutes one of mankind’s advantages over animals.[15]

The second, and more recent, sense of the word art as an abbreviation for creative art or fine art emerged in the early 17th century.[16] Fine art refers to a skill used to express the artist’s creativity, or to engage the audience’s aesthetic sensibilities, or to draw the audience towards consideration of more refined or finer work of art.

Within this latter sense, the word art may refer to several things: (i) a study of a creative skill, (ii) a process of using the creative skill, (iii) a product of the creative skill, or (iv) the audience’s experience with the creative skill. The creative arts (art as discipline) are a collection of disciplines which produce artworks (artas objects) that are compelled by a personal drive (art as activity) and convey a message, mood, or symbolism for the perceiver to interpret (art as experience). Art is something that stimulates an individual’s thoughts, emotions, beliefs, or ideas through the senses. Works of art can be explicitly made for this purpose or interpreted on the basis of images or objects. For some scholars, such as Kant, the sciences and the arts could be distinguished by taking science as representing the domain of knowledge and the arts as representing the domain of the freedom of artistic expression.

Often, if the skill is being used in a common or practical way, people will consider it a craft instead of art. Likewise, if the skill is being used in a commercial or industrial way, it may be considered commercial art instead of fine art. On the other hand, crafts and design are sometimes considered applied art. Some art followers have argued that the difference between fine art and applied art has more to do with value judgments made about the art than any clear definitional difference.[17] However, even fine art often has goals beyond pure creativity and self-expression. The purpose of works of art may be to communicate ideas, such as in politically, spiritually, or philosophically motivated art; to create a sense of beauty (see aesthetics); to explore the nature of perception; for pleasure; or to generate strong emotions. The purpose may also be seemingly nonexistent.

The nature of art has been described by philosopher Richard Wollheim as “one of the most elusive of the traditional problems of human culture”.[18] Art has been defined as a vehicle for the expression or communication of emotions and ideas, a means for exploring and appreciating formal elements for their own sake, and as mimesis or representation. Art as mimesis has deep roots in the philosophy of Aristotle.[19] Leo Tolstoy identified art as a use of indirect means to communicate from one person to another.[19] Benedetto Croce and R.G. Collingwood advanced the idealist view that art expresses emotions, and that the work of art therefore essentially exists in the mind of the creator.[20][21] The theory of art as form has its roots in the philosophy of Immanuel Kant, and was developed in the early twentieth century by Roger Fry and Clive Bell. More recently, thinkers influenced by Martin Heidegger have interpreted art as the means by which a community develops for itself a medium for self-expression and interpretation.[22]George Dickie has offered an institutional theory of art that defines a work of art as any artifact upon which a qualified person or persons acting on behalf of the social institution commonly referred to as “the art world” has conferred “the status of candidate for appreciation”.[23] Larry Shiner has described fine art as “not an essence or a fate but something we have made. Art as we have generally understood it is a European invention barely two hundred years old.”[24]

History

Venus of Willendorfcirca24,000–22,000 BP

Sculptures, cave paintings, rock paintings and petroglyphs from the Upper Paleolithic dating to roughly 40,000 years ago have been found,[25]but the precise meaning of such art is often disputed because so little is known about the cultures that produced them. The oldest art objects in the world—a series of tiny, drilled snail shells about 75,000 years old—were discovered in a South African cave.[26] Containers that may have been used to hold paints have been found dating as far back as 100,000 years.[27] Etched shells by Homo erectus from 430,000 and 540,000 years ago were discovered in 2014.[28]

Cave painting of a horse from the Lascaux caves, circa 16,000 BP

Many great traditions in art have a foundation in the art of one of the great ancient civilizations: Ancient EgyptMesopotamiaPersia, India, China, Ancient Greece, Rome, as well as IncaMaya, and Olmec. Each of these centers of early civilization developed a unique and characteristic style in its art. Because of the size and duration of these civilizations, more of their art works have survived and more of their influence has been transmitted to other cultures and later times. Some also have provided the first records of how artists worked. For example, this period of Greek art saw a veneration of the human physical form and the development of equivalent skills to show musculature, poise, beauty, and anatomically correct proportions.

In Byzantine and Medieval art of the Western Middle Ages, much art focused on the expression of subjects about Biblical and religious culture, and used styles that showed the higher glory of a heavenly world, such as the use of gold in the background of paintings, or glass in mosaics or windows, which also presented figures in idealized, patterned (flat) forms. Nevertheless, a classical realist tradition persisted in small Byzantine works, and realism steadily grew in the art of Catholic Europe.

Renaissance art had a greatly increased emphasis on the realistic depiction of the material world, and the place of humans in it, reflected in the corporeality of the human body, and development of a systematic method of graphical perspective to depict recession in a three-dimensional picture space.

The stylized signature of SultanMahmud II of the Ottoman Empire was written in Islamic calligraphy. It reads Mahmud Khan son of Abdulhamid is forever victorious.

The Great Mosque of Kairouan in Tunisia, also called the Mosque of Uqba, is one of the finest, most significant and best preserved artistic and architectural examples of early great mosques. Dated in its present state from the 9th century, it is the ancestor and model of all the mosques in the western Islamic lands.[29]

In the east, Islamic art‘s rejection of iconography led to emphasis on geometric patternscalligraphy, and architecture. Further east, religion dominated artistic styles and forms too. India and Tibet saw emphasis on painted sculptures and dance, while religious painting borrowed many conventions from sculpture and tended to bright contrasting colors with emphasis on outlines. China saw the flourishing of many art forms: jade carving, bronzework, pottery (including the stunning terracotta army of Emperor Qin), poetry, calligraphy, music, painting, drama, fiction, etc. Chinese styles vary greatly from era to era and each one is traditionally named after the ruling dynasty. So, for example, Tang dynasty paintings are monochromatic and sparse, emphasizing idealized landscapes, but Ming dynasty paintings are busy and colorful, and focus on telling stories via setting and composition. Japan names its styles after imperial dynasties too, and also saw much interplay between the styles of calligraphy and painting. Woodblock printing became important in Japan after the 17th century.

Painting by Song dynasty artist Ma Lin, circa 1250. 24.8 × 25.2 cm

The western Age of Enlightenment in the 18th century saw artistic depictions of physical and rational certainties of the clockwork universe, as well as politically revolutionary visions of a post-monarchist world, such as Blake‘s portrayal of Newton as a divine geometer, or David‘s propagandistic paintings. This led to Romantic rejections of this in favor of pictures of the emotional side and individuality of humans, exemplified in the novels of Goethe. The late 19th century then saw a host of artistic movements, such as academic artSymbolismimpressionism and fauvism among others.

The history of twentieth-century art is a narrative of endless possibilities and the search for new standards, each being torn down in succession by the next. Thus the parameters of impressionismExpressionismFauvismCubismDadaismSurrealism, etc. cannot be maintained very much beyond the time of their invention. Increasing global interaction during this time saw an equivalent influence of other cultures into Western art. Thus, Japanese woodblock prints (themselves influenced by Western Renaissance draftsmanship) had an immense influence on impressionism and subsequent development. Later, African sculptures were taken up by Picasso and to some extent by Matisse. Similarly, in the 19th and 20th centuries the West has had huge impacts on Eastern art with originally western ideas like Communism and Post-Modernismexerting a powerful influence.

Modernism, the idealistic search for truth, gave way in the latter half of the 20th century to a realization of its unattainability. Theodor W. Adorno said in 1970, “It is now taken for granted that nothing which concerns art can be taken for granted any more: neither art itself, nor art in relationship to the whole, nor even the right of art to exist.”[30] Relativism was accepted as an unavoidable truth, which led to the period of contemporary art and postmodern criticism, where cultures of the world and of history are seen as changing forms, which can be appreciated and drawn from only with skepticism and irony. Furthermore, the separation of cultures is increasingly blurred and some argue it is now more appropriate to think in terms of a global culture, rather than of regional ones.

Forms, genres, media, and styles

Napoleon I on his Imperial Throneby Ingres (French, 1806), oil on canvas

The creative arts are often divided into more specific categories, typically along perceptually distinguishable categories such as media, genre, styles, and form.[31] Art form refers to the elements of art that are independent of its interpretation or significance. It covers the methods adopted by the artist and the physical composition of the artwork, primarily non-semantic aspects of the work (i.e., figurae),[32]such as colorcontourdimensionmediummelodyspacetexture, and value. Form may also include visual design principles, such as arrangement, balancecontrastemphasisharmonyproportionproximity, and rhythm.[33]

In general there are three schools of philosophy regarding art, focusing respectively on form, content, and context.[33] Extreme Formalismis the view that all aesthetic properties of art are formal (that is, part of the art form). Philosophers almost universally reject this view and hold that the properties and aesthetics of art extend beyond materials, techniques, and form.[34] Unfortunately, there is little consensus on terminology for these informal properties. Some authors refer to subject matter and content – i.e., denotations and connotations – while others prefer terms like meaning and significance.[33]

Extreme Intentionalism holds that authorial intent plays a decisive role in the meaning of a work of art, conveying the content or essential main idea, while all other interpretations can be discarded.[35] It defines the subject as the persons or idea represented,[36] and the content as the artist’s experience of that subject.[37] For example, the composition of Napoleon I on his Imperial Throne is partly borrowed from the Statue of Zeus at Olympia. As evidenced by the title, the subject is Napoleon, and the content is Ingres‘s representation of Napoleon as “Emperor-God beyond time and space”.[33] Similarly to extreme formalism, philosophers typically reject extreme intentionalism, because art may have multiple ambiguous meanings and authorial intent may be unknowable and thus irrelevant. Its restrictive interpretation is “socially unhealthy, philosophically unreal, and politically unwise”.[33]

Finally, the developing theory of post-structuralism studies art’s significance in a cultural context, such as the ideas, emotions, and reactions prompted by a work.[38] The cultural context often reduces to the artist’s techniques and intentions, in which case analysis proceeds along lines similar to formalism and intentionalism. However, in other cases historical and material conditions may predominate, such as religious and philosophical convictions, sociopolitical and economic structures, or even climate and geography. Art criticism continues to grow and develop alongside art.[33]

Skill and craft

Adam. Detail from Michelangelo‘s fresco in the Sistine Chapel (1511)

Detail of Leonardo da Vinci‘s Mona Lisa, showing the painting technique of sfumato

Art can connote a sense of trained ability or mastery of a medium. Art can also simply refer to the developed and efficient use of a language to convey meaning with immediacy and or depth. Art can be defined as an act of expressing feelings, thoughts, and observations.[39]

There is an understanding that is reached with the material as a result of handling it, which facilitates one’s thought processes. A common view is that the epithet “art”, particular in its elevated sense, requires a certain level of creative expertise by the artist, whether this be a demonstration of technical ability, an originality in stylistic approach, or a combination of these two. Traditionally skill of execution was viewed as a quality inseparable from art and thus necessary for its success; for Leonardo da Vinci, art, neither more nor less than his other endeavors, was a manifestation of skill. Rembrandt‘s work, now praised for its ephemeral virtues, was most admired by his contemporaries for its virtuosity. At the turn of the 20th century, the adroit performances of John Singer Sargentwere alternately admired and viewed with skepticism for their manual fluency, yet at nearly the same time the artist who would become the era’s most recognized and peripatetic iconoclast, Pablo Picasso, was completing a traditional academic training at which he excelled.

A common contemporary criticism of some modern art occurs along the lines of objecting to the apparent lack of skill or ability required in the production of the artistic object. In conceptual art, Marcel Duchamp‘s “Fountain” is among the first examples of pieces wherein the artist used found objects (“ready-made”) and exercised no traditionally recognised set of skills. Tracey Emin‘s My Bed, or Damien Hirst‘s The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living follow this example and also manipulate the mass media. Emin slept (and engaged in other activities) in her bed before placing the result in a gallery as work of art. Hirst came up with the conceptual design for the artwork but has left most of the eventual creation of many works to employed artisans. Hirst’s celebrity is founded entirely on his ability to produce shocking concepts. The actual production in many conceptual and contemporary works of art is a matter of assembly of found objects. However, there are many modernist and contemporary artists who continue to excel in the skills of drawing and painting and in creating hands-on works of art.

Purpose

Navajo rug made circa 1880

Mozarabic Beatus miniature. Spain, late 10th century

Art has had a great number of different functions throughout its history, making its purpose difficult to abstract or quantify to any single concept. This does not imply that the purpose of Art is “vague”, but that it has had many unique, different reasons for being created. Some of these functions of Art are provided in the following outline. The different purposes of art may be grouped according to those that are non-motivated, and those that are motivated (Lévi-Strauss).

Non-motivated functions

The non-motivated purposes of art are those that are integral to being human, transcend the individual, or do not fulfill a specific external purpose. In this sense, Art, as creativity, is something humans must do by their very nature (i.e., no other species creates art), and is therefore beyond utility.

  1. Basic human instinct for harmony, balance, rhythm. Art at this level is not an action or an object, but an internal appreciation of balance and harmony (beauty), and therefore an aspect of being human beyond utility.

    “Imitation, then, is one instinct of our nature. Next, there is the instinct for ‘harmony’ and rhythm, meters being manifestly sections of rhythm. Persons, therefore, starting with this natural gift developed by degrees their special aptitudes, till their rude improvisations gave birth to Poetry.” -Aristotle[40]

  2. Experience of the mysterious. Art provides a way to experience one’s self in relation to the universe. This experience may often come unmotivated, as one appreciates art, music or poetry.

    “The most beautiful thing we can experience is the mysterious. It is the source of all true art and science.” – Albert Einstein[41]

  3. Expression of the imagination. Art provides a means to express the imagination in non-grammatic ways that are not tied to the formality of spoken or written language. Unlike words, which come in sequences and each of which have a definite meaning, art provides a range of forms, symbols and ideas with meanings that are malleable.

    “Jupiter’s eagle [as an example of art] is not, like logical (aesthetic) attributes of an object, the concept of the sublimity and majesty of creation, but rather something else—something that gives the imagination an incentive to spread its flight over a whole host of kindred representations that provoke more thought than admits of expression in a concept determined by words. They furnish an aesthetic idea, which serves the above rational idea as a substitute for logical presentation, but with the proper function, however, of animating the mind by opening out for it a prospect into a field of kindred representations stretching beyond its ken.” -Immanuel Kant[42]

  4. Ritualistic and symbolic functions. In many cultures, art is used in rituals, performances and dances as a decoration or symbol. While these often have no specific utilitarian (motivated) purpose, anthropologists know that they often serve a purpose at the level of meaning within a particular culture. This meaning is not furnished by any one individual, but is often the result of many generations of change, and of a cosmological relationship within the culture.

    “Most scholars who deal with rock paintings or objects recovered from prehistoric contexts that cannot be explained in utilitarian terms and are thus categorized as decorative, ritual or symbolic, are aware of the trap posed by the term ‘art’.” -Silva Tomaskova[43]

Motivated functions

Motivated purposes of art refer to intentional, conscious actions on the part of the artists or creator. These may be to bring about political change, to comment on an aspect of society, to convey a specific emotion or mood, to address personal psychology, to illustrate another discipline, to (with commercial arts) sell a product, or simply as a form of communication.

  1. Communication. Art, at its simplest, is a form of communication. As most forms of communication have an intent or goal directed toward another individual, this is a motivated purpose. Illustrative arts, such as scientific illustration, are a form of art as communication. Maps are another example. However, the content need not be scientific. Emotions, moods and feelings are also communicated through art.

    “[Art is a set of] artefacts or images with symbolic meanings as a means of communication.” – Steve Mithen[44]

  2. Art as entertainment. Art may seek to bring about a particular emotion or mood, for the purpose of relaxing or entertaining the viewer. This is often the function of the art industries of Motion Pictures and Video Games.[citation needed]
  3. The Avante-Garde. Art for political change. One of the defining functions of early twentieth-century art has been to use visual images to bring about political change. Art movements that had this goal—DadaismSurrealismRussian constructivism, and Abstract Expressionism, among others—are collectively referred to as the avante-gardearts.

    “By contrast, the realistic attitude, inspired by positivism, from Saint Thomas Aquinas to Anatole France, clearly seems to me to be hostile to any intellectual or moral advancement. I loathe it, for it is made up of mediocrity, hate, and dull conceit. It is this attitude which today gives birth to these ridiculous books, these insulting plays. It constantly feeds on and derives strength from the newspapers and stultifies both science and art by assiduously flattering the lowest of tastes; clarity bordering on stupidity, a dog’s life.” – André Breton (Surrealism)[45]

  4. Art as a “free zone”, removed from the action of the social censure. Unlike the avant-garde movements, which wanted to erase cultural differences in order to produce new universal values, contemporary art has enhanced its tolerance towards cultural differences as well as its critical and liberating functions (social inquiry, activism, subversion, deconstruction …), becoming a more open place for research and experimentation.[46]
  5. Art for social inquiry, subversion and/or anarchy. While similar to art for political change, subversive or deconstructivist art may seek to question aspects of society without any specific political goal. In this case, the function of art may be simply to criticize some aspect of society.

    Spray-paint graffiti on a wall in Rome

    Graffiti art and other types of street art are graphics and images that are spray-painted or stencilled on publicly viewable walls, buildings, buses, trains, and bridges, usually without permission. Certain art forms, such as graffiti, may also be illegal when they break laws (in this case vandalism).

  6. Art for social causes. Art can be used to raise awareness for a large variety of causes. A number of art activities were aimed at raising awareness of autism,[47][48][49]cancer,[50][51][52] human trafficking,[53][54] and a variety of other topics, such as ocean conservation,[55] human rights in Darfur,[56] murdered and missing Aboriginal women,[57] elder abuse,[58] and pollution.[59] Trashion, using trash to make fashion, practiced by artists such as Marina DeBris is one example of using art to raise awareness about pollution.
  7. Art for psychological and healing purposes. Art is also used by art therapists, psychotherapists and clinical psychologists as art therapy. The Diagnostic Drawing Series, for example, is used to determine the personality and emotional functioning of a patient. The end product is not the principal goal in this case, but rather a process of healing, through creative acts, is sought. The resultant piece of artwork may also offer insight into the troubles experienced by the subject and may suggest suitable approaches to be used in more conventional forms of psychiatric therapy.
  8. Art for propaganda, or commercialism. Art is often utilized as a form of propaganda, and thus can be used to subtly influence popular conceptions or mood. In a similar way, art that tries to sell a product also influences mood and emotion. In both cases, the purpose of art here is to subtly manipulate the viewer into a particular emotional or psychological response toward a particular idea or object.[60]
  9. Art as a fitness indicator. It has been argued that the ability of the human brain by far exceeds what was needed for survival in the ancestral environment. One evolutionary psychology explanation for this is that the human brain and associated traits (such as artistic ability and creativity) are the human equivalent of the peacock‘s tail. The purpose of the male peacock’s extravagant tail has been argued to be to attract females (see also Fisherian runaway and handicap principle). According to this theory superior execution of art was evolutionary important because it attracted mates.[61]

The functions of art described above are not mutually exclusive, as many of them may overlap. For example, art for the purpose of entertainment may also seek to sell a product, i.e. the movie or video game.

Public access

Versailles: Louis Le Vau opened up the interior court to create the expansive entrance cour d’honneur, later copied all over Europe.

Since ancient times, much of the finest art has represented a deliberate display of wealth or power, often achieved by using massive scale and expensive materials. Much art has been commissioned by political rulers or religious establishments, with more modest versions only available to the most wealthy in society.

Nevertheless, there have been many periods where art of very high quality was available, in terms of ownership, across large parts of society, above all in cheap media such as pottery, which persists in the ground, and perishable media such as textiles and wood. In many different cultures, the ceramics of indigenous peoples of the Americas are found in such a wide range of graves that they were clearly not restricted to a social elite, though other forms of art may have been. Reproductive methods such as moulds made mass-production easier, and were used to bring high-quality Ancient Roman potteryand Greek Tanagra figurines to a very wide market. Cylinder seals were both artistic and practical, and very widely used by what can be loosely called the middle class in the Ancient Near East. Once coins were widely used these also became an art form that reached the widest range of society.

Another important innovation came in the 15th century in Europe, when printmaking began with small woodcuts, mostly religious, that were often very small and hand-colored, and affordable even by peasants who glued them to the walls of their homes. Printed books were initially very expensive, but fell steadily in price until by the 19th century even the poorest could afford some with printed illustrations. Popular prints of many different sorts have decorated homes and other places for centuries.

Public buildings and monuments, secular and religious, by their nature normally address the whole of society, and visitors as viewers, and display to the general public has long been an important factor in their design. Egyptian temples are typical in that the most largest and most lavish decoration was placed on the parts that could be seen by the general public, rather than the areas seen only by the priests. Many areas of royal palaces, castles and the houses of the social elite were often generally accessible, and large parts of the art collections of such people could often be seen, either by anybody, or by those able to pay a small price, or those wearing the correct clothes, regardless of who they were, as at the Palace of Versailles, where the appropriate extra accessories (silver shoe buckles and a sword) could be hired from shops outside.

Special arrangements were made to allow the public to see many royal or private collections placed in galleries, as with the Orleans Collection mostly housed in a wing of the Palais Royal in Paris, which could be visited for most of the 18th century. In Italy the art tourism of the Grand Tour became a major industry from the Renaissance onwards, and governments and cities made efforts to make their key works accessible. The British Royal Collection remains distinct, but large donations such as the Old Royal Library were made from it to the British Museum, established in 1753. The Uffizi in Florence opened entirely as a gallery in 1765, though this function had been gradually taking the building over from the original civil servants’ offices for a long time before. The building now occupied by the Prado in Madrid was built before the French Revolution for the public display of parts of the royal art collection, and similar royal galleries open to the public existed in Vienna, Munich and other capitals. The opening of the Musée du Louvre during the French Revolution (in 1793) as a public museum for much of the former French royal collection certainly marked an important stage in the development of public access to art, transferring ownership to a republican state, but was a continuation of trends already well established.

Most modern public museums and art education programs for children in schools can be traced back to this impulse to have art available to everyone. Museums in the United States tend to be gifts from the very rich to the masses. (The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, for example, was created by John Taylor Johnston, a railroad executive whose personal art collection seeded the museum.) But despite all this, at least one of the important functions of art in the 21st century remains as a marker of wealth and social status.

Performance by Joseph Beuys, 1978: Everyone an artist – On the way to the libertarian form of the social organism

There have been attempts by artists to create art that can not be bought by the wealthy as a status object. One of the prime original motivators of much of the art of the late 1960s and 1970s was to create art that could not be bought and sold. It is “necessary to present something more than mere objects”[62] said the major post war German artist Joseph Beuys. This time period saw the rise of such things as performance artvideo art, and conceptual art. The idea was that if the artwork was a performance that would leave nothing behind, or was simply an idea, it could not be bought and sold. “Democratic precepts revolving around the idea that a work of art is a commodity impelled the aesthetic innovation which germinated in the mid-1960s and was reaped throughout the 1970s. Artists broadly identified under the heading of Conceptual art … substituting performance and publishing activities for engagement with both the material and materialistic concerns of painted or sculptural form … [have] endeavored to undermine the art object qua object.”[63]

In the decades since, these ideas have been somewhat lost as the art market has learned to sell limited edition DVDs of video works,[64]invitations to exclusive performance art pieces, and the objects left over from conceptual pieces. Many of these performances create works that are only understood by the elite who have been educated as to why an idea or video or piece of apparent garbage may be considered art. The marker of status becomes understanding the work instead of necessarily owning it, and the artwork remains an upper-class activity. “With the widespread use of DVD recording technology in the early 2000s, artists, and the gallery system that derives its profits from the sale of artworks, gained an important means of controlling the sale of video and computer artworks in limited editions to collectors.”[65]

Controversies

Art has long been controversial, that is to say disliked by some viewers, for a wide variety of reasons, though most pre-modern controversies are dimly recorded, or completely lost to a modern view. Iconoclasm is the destruction of art that is disliked for a variety of reasons, including religious ones. Aniconism is a general dislike of either all figurative images, or often just religious ones, and has been a thread in many major religions. It has been a crucial factor in the history of Islamic art, where depictions of Muhammad remain especially controversial. Much art has been disliked purely because it depicted or otherwise stood for unpopular rulers, parties or other groups. Artistic conventions have often been conservative and taken very seriously by art critics, though often much less so by a wider public. The iconographiccontent of art could cause controversy, as with late medieval depictions of the new motif of the Swoon of the Virgin in scenes of the Crucifixion of JesusThe Last Judgment by Michelangelo was controversial for various reasons, including breaches of decorum through nudity and the Apollo-like pose of Christ.

The content of much formal art through history was dictated by the patron or commissioner rather than just the artist, but with the advent of Romanticism, and economic changes in the production of art, the artists’ vision became the usual determinant of the content of his art, increasing the incidence of controversies, though often reducing their significance. Strong incentives for perceived originality and publicity also encouraged artists to court controversy. Théodore Géricault‘s Raft of the Medusa (c. 1820), was in part a political commentary on a recent event. Édouard Manet‘s Le Déjeuner sur l’Herbe (1863), was considered scandalous not because of the nude woman, but because she is seated next to men fully dressed in the clothing of the time, rather than in robes of the antique world. John Singer Sargent‘s Madame Pierre Gautreau (Madam X) (1884), caused a controversy over the reddish pink used to color the woman’s ear lobe, considered far too suggestive and supposedly ruining the high-society model’s reputation.

The gradual abandonment of naturalism and the depiction of realistic representations of the visual appearance of subjects in the 19th and 20th centuries led to a rolling controversy lasting for over a century. In the twentieth century, Pablo Picasso‘s Guernica (1937) used arresting cubist techniques and stark monochromatic oils, to depict the harrowing consequences of a contemporary bombing of a small, ancient Basque town. Leon Golub‘s Interrogation III (1981), depicts a female nude, hooded detainee strapped to a chair, her legs open to reveal her sexual organs, surrounded by two tormentors dressed in everyday clothing. Andres Serrano‘s Piss Christ (1989) is a photograph of a crucifix, sacred to the Christian religion and representing Christ‘s sacrifice and final suffering, submerged in a glass of the artist’s own urine. The resulting uproar led to comments in the United States Senate about public funding of the arts.

Theory

Before Modernism, aesthetics in Western art was greatly concerned with achieving the appropriate balance between different aspects of realism or truth to nature and the ideal; ideas as to what the appropriate balance is have shifted to and fro over the centuries. This concern is largely absent in other traditions of art. The aesthetic theorist John Ruskin, who championed what he saw as the naturalism of J. M. W. Turner, saw art’s role as the communication by artifice of an essential truth that could only be found in nature.[66]

The definition and evaluation of art has become especially problematic since the 20th century. Richard Wollheim distinguishes three approaches to assessing the aesthetic value of art: the Realist, whereby aesthetic quality is an absolute value independent of any human view; the Objectivist, whereby it is also an absolute value, but is dependent on general human experience; and the Relativist position, whereby it is not an absolute value, but depends on, and varies with, the human experience of different humans.[67]

Arrival of Modernism

Composition II in Red, Blue, and Yellow (1930) by Piet Mondrian (Dutch, 1872–1944)

The arrival of Modernism in the late nineteenth century lead to a radical break in the conception of the function of art,[68] and then again in the late twentieth century with the advent of postmodernismClement Greenberg‘s 1960 article “Modernist Painting” defines modern art as “the use of characteristic methods of a discipline to criticize the discipline itself”.[69] Greenberg originally applied this idea to the Abstract Expressionist movement and used it as a way to understand and justify flat (non-illusionistic) abstract painting:

Realistic, naturalistic art had dissembled the medium, using art to conceal art; modernism used art to call attention to art. The limitations that constitute the medium of painting—the flat surface, the shape of the support, the properties of the pigment—were treated by the Old Masters as negative factors that could be acknowledged only implicitly or indirectly. Under Modernism these same limitations came to be regarded as positive factors, and were acknowledged openly.[69]

After Greenberg, several important art theorists emerged, such as Michael FriedT. J. ClarkRosalind KraussLinda Nochlin and Griselda Pollock among others. Though only originally intended as a way of understanding a specific set of artists, Greenberg’s definition of modern art is important to many of the ideas of art within the various art movements of the 20th century and early 21st century.

Pop artists like Andy Warhol became both noteworthy and influential through work including and possibly critiquing popular culture, as well as the art world. Artists of the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s expanded this technique of self-criticism beyond high art to all cultural image-making, including fashion images, comics, billboards and pornography.

Duchamp once proposed that art is any activity of any kind- everything. However, the way that only certain activities are classified today as art is a social construction.[70] There is evidence that there may be an element of truth to this. The Invention of Art: A Cultural History is an art history book which examines the construction of the modern system of the arts i.e. Fine Art. Shiner finds evidence that the older system of the arts before our modern system (fine art) held art to be any skilled human activity i.e. Ancient Greek society did not possess the term art but techne. Techne can be understood neither as art or craft, the reason being that the distinctions of art and craft are historical products that came later on in human history. Techne included painting, sculpting and music but also; cooking, medicine, horsemanshipgeometrycarpentryprophecy, and farming etc.

New Criticism and the “intentional fallacy”

Following Duchamp during the first half of the twentieth century, a significant shift to general aesthetic theory took place which attempted to apply aesthetic theory between various forms of art, including the literary arts and the visual arts, to each other. This resulted in the rise of the New Criticism school and debate concerning the intentional fallacy. At issue was the question of whether the aesthetic intentions of the artist in creating the work of art, whatever its specific form, should be associated with the criticism and evaluation of the final product of the work of art, or, if the work of art should be evaluated on its own merits independent of the intentions of the artist.

In 1946, William K. Wimsatt and Monroe Beardsley published a classic and controversial New Critical essay entitled “The Intentional Fallacy“, in which they argued strongly against the relevance of an author’s intention, or “intended meaning” in the analysis of a literary work. For Wimsatt and Beardsley, the words on the page were all that mattered; importation of meanings from outside the text was considered irrelevant, and potentially distracting.

In another essay, “The Affective Fallacy,” which served as a kind of sister essay to “The Intentional Fallacy” Wimsatt and Beardsley also discounted the reader’s personal/emotional reaction to a literary work as a valid means of analyzing a text. This fallacy would later be repudiated by theorists from the reader-response school of literary theory. Ironically, one of the leading theorists from this school, Stanley Fish, was himself trained by New Critics. Fish criticizes Wimsatt and Beardsley in his essay “Literature in the Reader” (1970).[71]

As summarized by Gaut and Livingston in their essay “The Creation of Art”: “Structuralist and post-structuralists theorists and critics were sharply critical of many aspects of New Criticism, beginning with the emphasis on aesthetic appreciation and the so-called autonomy of art, but they reiterated the attack on biographical criticisms’s assumption that the artist’s activities and experience were a privileged critical topic.”[72] These authors contend that: “Anti-intentionalists, such as formalists, hold that the intentions involved in the making of art are irrelevant or peripheral to correctly interpreting art. So details of the act of creating a work, though possibly of interest in themselves, have no bearing on the correct interpretation of the work.”[73]

Gaut and Livingston define the intentionalists as distinct from formalists stating that: “Intentionalists, unlike formalists, hold that reference to intentions is essential in fixing the correct interpretation of works.” They quote Richard Wollheim as stating that, “The task of criticism is the reconstruction of the creative process, where the creative process must in turn be thought of as something not stopping short of, but terminating on, the work of art itself.”[73]

“Linguistic turn” and its debate

The end of the 20th century fostered an extensive debate known as the linguistic turn controversy, or the “innocent eye debate”, and generally referred to as the structuralism-poststructuralism debate in the philosophy of art. This debate discussed the encounter of the work of art as being determined by the relative extent to which the conceptual encounter with the work of art dominates over the perceptual encounter with the work of art.[74]

Decisive for the linguistic turn debate in art history and the humanities were the works of yet another tradition, namely the structuralism of Ferdinand de Saussure and the ensuing movement of poststructuralism. In 1981, the artist Mark Tansey created a work of art titled “The Innocent Eye” as a criticism of the prevailing climate of disagreement in the philosophy of art during the closing decades of the 20th century. Influential theorists include Judith ButlerLuce IrigarayJulia KristevaMichel Foucault and Jacques Derrida. The power of language, more specifically of certain rhetorical tropes, in art history and historical discourse was explored by Hayden White. The fact that language is not a transparent medium of thought had been stressed by a very different form of philosophy of language which originated in the works of Johann Georg Hamann and Wilhelm von Humboldt.[75] Ernst Gombrich and Nelson Goodman in his book Languages of Art: An Approach to a Theory of Symbols came to hold that the conceptual encounter with the work of art predominated exclusively over the perceptual and visual encounter with the work of art during the 1960s and 1970s.[76] He was challenged on the basis of research done by the Nobel prize winning psychologist Roger Sperry who maintained that the human visual encounter was not limited to concepts represented in language alone (the linguistic turn) and that other forms of psychological representations of the work of art were equally defensible and demonstrable. Sperry’s view eventually prevailed by the end of the 20th century with aesthetic philosophers such as Nick Zangwill strongly defending a return to moderate aesthetic formalism among other alternatives.[77]

Classification disputes

The original Fountain by Marcel Duchamp, 1917, photographed by Alfred Stieglitz at the 291 after the 1917 Society of Independent Artists exhibit. Stieglitz used a backdrop of The Warriors by Marsden Hartley to photograph the urinal. The exhibition entry tag can be clearly seen.[78]

Disputes as to whether or not to classify something as a work of art are referred to as classificatory disputes about art. Classificatory disputes in the 20th century have included cubist and impressionist paintings, Duchamp‘s Fountain, the movies, superlative imitations of banknotesconceptual art, and video games.[79] Philosopher David Novitz has argued that disagreement about the definition of art are rarely the heart of the problem. Rather, “the passionate concerns and interests that humans vest in their social life” are “so much a part of all classificatory disputes about art” (Novitz, 1996). According to Novitz, classificatory disputes are more often disputes about societal values and where society is trying to go than they are about theory proper. For example, when the Daily Mail criticized Hirst‘s and Emin‘s work by arguing “For 1,000 years art has been one of our great civilising forces. Today, pickled sheep and soiled beds threaten to make barbarians of us all” they are not advancing a definition or theory about art, but questioning the value of Hirst’s and Emin’s work.[80] In 1998, Arthur Danto, suggested a thought experiment showing that “the status of an artifact as work of art results from the ideas a culture applies to it, rather than its inherent physical or perceptible qualities. Cultural interpretation (an art theory of some kind) is therefore constitutive of an object’s arthood.”[81][82]

Anti-art is a label for art that intentionally challenges the established parameters and values of art;[83] it is term associated with Dadaismand attributed to Marcel Duchamp just before World War I,[83] when he was making art from found objects.[83] One of these, Fountain(1917), an ordinary urinal, has achieved considerable prominence and influence on art.[83] Anti-art is a feature of work by Situationist International,[84] the lo-fi Mail art movement, and the Young British Artists,[83] though it is a form still rejected by the Stuckists,[83] who describe themselves as anti-anti-art.[85][86]

Value judgment

Aboriginal hollow log tombs. National Gallery, Canberra, Australia

Somewhat in relation to the above, the word art is also used to apply judgments of value, as in such expressions as “that meal was a work of art” (the cook is an artist), or “the art of deception”, (the highly attained level of skill of the deceiver is praised). It is this use of the word as a measure of high quality and high value that gives the term its flavor of subjectivity. Making judgments of value requires a basis for criticism. At the simplest level, a way to determine whether the impact of the object on the senses meets the criteria to be considered art is whether it is perceived to be attractive or repulsive. Though perception is always colored by experience, and is necessarily subjective, it is commonly understood that what is not somehow aesthetically satisfying cannot be art. However, “good” art is not always or even regularly aesthetically appealing to a majority of viewers. In other words, an artist’s prime motivation need not be the pursuit of the aesthetic. Also, art often depicts terrible images made for social, moral, or thought-provoking reasons. For example, Francisco Goya‘s painting depicting the Spanish shootings of 3rd of May 1808 is a graphic depiction of a firing squad executing several pleading civilians. Yet at the same time, the horrific imagery demonstrates Goya’s keen artistic ability in composition and execution and produces fitting social and political outrage. Thus, the debate continues as to what mode of aesthetic satisfaction, if any, is required to define ‘art’.

The assumption of new values or the rebellion against accepted notions of what is aesthetically superior need not occur concurrently with a complete abandonment of the pursuit of what is aesthetically appealing. Indeed, the reverse is often true, that the revision of what is popularly conceived of as being aesthetically appealing allows for a re-invigoration of aesthetic sensibility, and a new appreciation for the standards of art itself. Countless schools have proposed their own ways to define quality, yet they all seem to agree in at least one point: once their aesthetic choices are accepted, the value of the work of art is determined by its capacity to transcend the limits of its chosen medium to strike some universal chord by the rarity of the skill of the artist or in its accurate reflection in what is termed the zeitgeist. Art is often intended to appeal to and connect with human emotion. It can arouse aesthetic or moral feelings, and can be understood as a way of communicating these feelings. Artists express something so that their audience is aroused to some extent, but they do not have to do so consciously. Art may be considered an exploration of the human condition; that is, what it is to be human.[87]

See also

Notes

  1. Jump up to:a b “Art: definition”. Oxford Dictionaries.
  2. Jump up^ “art”. Merriam-Websters Dictionary.
  3. Jump up^ Is advertising art?
  4. Jump up^ “Art, n. 1”. OED Online. December 2011. Oxford University Press. http://www.oed.com. (Accessed 26 February 2012.)
  5. Jump up^ Gombrich, Ernst. (2005). “Press statement on The Story of Art”The Gombrich Archive. Archived from the original on 6 October 2008. Retrieved 18 November 2008.
  6. Jump up^ Stephen Davies (1991). Definitions of Art. Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-9794-0.
  7. Jump up^ Robert Stecker (1997). Artworks: Definition, Meaning, Value. Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 978-0-271-01596-5.
  8. Jump up^ Noël Carroll, ed. (2000). Theories of Art Today. University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 978-0-299-16354-9.
  9. Jump up^ Dr. Robert J. Belton. “What Is Art?”. Archived from the original on 27 April 2012.
  10. Jump up to:a b “art”Encyclopædia Britannica.
  11. Jump up^ Kennick, William ed,[clarification needed] and W. E. Kennick, Art and philosophy: readings in aesthetics New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1979, pp. xi–xiii. ISBN 0-312-05391-6.
  12. Jump up^ Elkins, James “Art History and Images That Are Not Art”, The Art Bulletin, Vol. 47, No. 4 (December 1995), with previous bibliography. “Non-Western images are not well described in terms of art, and neither are medieval paintings that were made in the absence of humanist ideas of artistic value”. 553
  13. Jump up^ Aristotle, Poetics I 1447a
  14. Jump up^ Aristotle, Poetics III
  15. Jump up^ Aristotle, Poetics IV
  16. Jump up^ The New Shorter Oxford English DictionaryOxford University Press, Oxford 1993, p. 120
  17. Jump up^ David Novitz, The Boundaries of Art, 1992
  18. Jump up^ Richard Wollheim, Art and its objects, p. 1, 2nd ed., 1980, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-29706-0
  19. Jump up to:a b Jerrold Levinson, The Oxford Handbook of Aesthetics, Oxford University Press, 2003, p. 5. ISBN 0-19-927945-4
  20. Jump up^ Jerrold Levinson, The Oxford Handbook of Aesthetics, Oxford University Press, 2003, p. 16. ISBN 0-19-927945-4
  21. Jump up^ R.G. Collingwood’s view, expressed in The Principles of Art, is considered in Wollheim, op. cit. 1980 pp. 36–43
  22. Jump up^ Martin Heidegger, “The Origin of the Work of Art”, in Poetry, Language, Thought, (Harper Perennial, 2001). See also Maurice Merleau-Ponty, “Cézanne’s Doubt” in The Merleau-Ponty Aesthetics Reader, Galen Johnson and Michael Smith (eds), (Northwestern University Press, 1994) and John RussonBearing Witness to Epiphany, (State University of New York Press, 2009).
  23. Jump up^ Kennick, William ed, and W. E. Kennick, Art and philosophy: readings in aestheticsNew York: St. Martin’s Press, 1979, p. 89. ISBN 0-312-05391-6
  24. Jump up^ Shiner 2003. The Invention of Art: A Cultural HistoryChicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-226-75342-3
  25. Jump up^ “World’s oldest art found in Indonesian cave”nature.com. 8 October 2014. Retrieved 12 October 2014.
  26. Jump up^ Radford, Tim. “World’s Oldest Jewellery Found in Cave”Guardian Unlimited, 16 April 2004. Retrieved on 18 January 2008.
  27. Jump up^ “African Cave Yields Evidence of a Prehistoric Paint Factory”The New York Times. 13 October 2011.
  28. Jump up^ “Shell ‘Art’ Made 300,000 Years Before Humans Evolved”New ScientistReed Business Information Ltd. 3 December 2014.
  29. Jump up^ John Stothoff Badeau and John Richard Hayes, The Genius of Arab civilization: source of Renaissance. Taylor & Francis. 1983. p. 104
  30. Jump up^ Adorno, Theodor W., Aesthetic Theory, (1970 in German)
  31. Jump up^ Walton, Kendall L. (1 January 1970). “Categories of Art”. The Philosophical Review79 (3): 334–67. doi:10.2307/2183933JSTOR 2183933.
  32. Jump up^ Monelle, Raymond (3 January 1992). Linguistics and Semiotics in Music. Routledge. p. 202. ISBN 978-3718652099. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
  33. Jump up to:a b c d e f Belton, Dr. Robert J. (1996). “The Elements of Art”Art History: A Preliminary Handbook.
  34. Jump up^ Xu, Min; Deng, Guifang (2 December 2014). “Against Zangwill’s Extreme Formalism About Inorganic Nature” (PDF). Philosophia43 (1): 249–57. doi:10.1007/s11406-014-9575-1. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
  35. Jump up^ Livingston, Paisley (1998). “Intentionalism in Aesthetics”New Literary History29(4): 831–46. doi:10.1353/nlh.1998.0042.
  36. Jump up^ Munk, Eduard; Beck, Charles; Felton, Cornelius Conway (1844). The Metres of the Greeks and Romans. p. 1. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
  37. Jump up^ Tolstoy, Leo (1899). What is Art?. Crowell. p. 24. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
  38. Jump up^ Emiroğlu, Melahat Küçükarslan; Koş, Fitnat Cimşit (16–20 September 2014). Design Semiotics and Post-Structuralism. 12th World Congress of Semiotics. New Bulgarian University. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
  39. Jump up^ Breskin, Vladimir, “Triad: Method for studying the core of the semiotic parity of language and art”Signs – International Journal of Semiotics 3, pp. 1–28, 2010. ISSN 1902-8822
  40. Jump up^ Aristotle. “[Book 10:] The Poetics”. Republicwww.authorama.com. Note: Although speaking mostly of poetry here, the Ancient Greeks often speak of the arts collectively.
  41. Jump up^ Einstein, Albert. “The World as I See It”. http://www.aip.org/history/einstein/essay.htm
  42. Jump up^ Immanuel Kant, Critique of Aesthetic Judgement (1790).
  43. Jump up^ Silvia Tomaskova, Places of Art: Art and Archaeology in Context: (1997)
  44. Jump up^ Steve Mithen. The Prehistory of the Mind: The Cognitive Origins of Art, Religion and Science. 1999
  45. Jump up^ André Breton, Surrealist Manifesto (1924)
  46. Jump up^ According to Maurizio Bolognini this is not only associated with the postmodernrejection of all canons but with a process of secularization of art, which is finally considered as “a mere (albeit essential) convention, sustained and reproduced by the art system (artists, galleries, critics, collectors), providing a free zone, that is, a more open place for experimentation, removed from the constraints of the practical sphere.”: see Maurizio Bolognini (2008). Postdigitale. Rome: Carocci. ISBN 978-88-430-4739-0.chap. 3.
  47. Jump up^ Trotter, Jeramia (15 February 2011). “RiverKings raising autism awareness with art”WMC tv. Archived from the original on 22 February 2011. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
  48. Jump up^ “Art exhibit aims to raise awareness of autism”Daily News-Miner. 4 April 2012. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
  49. Jump up^ “Anchorage art exhibit to raise awareness about autism” (PDF). Alaska Department of Health and Social Services. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
  50. Jump up^ Ruhl, Ashleigh (18 February 2013). “Photographer Seeks Subjects To Help Raise Cancer Awareness”Gazettes. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
  51. Jump up^ “Bra art raising awareness for breast cancer”The Palm Beach Post. n.d. Retrieved 22 January 2015.
  52. Jump up^ Flynn, Marella (10 January 2007). “October art walk aims to raise money, awareness for breast cancer”Flagler College Gargoyle. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
  53. Jump up^ “Students get creative in the fight against human trafficking”WDTN Channel 2 News. 26 November 2012. Archived from the original on June 30, 2013. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
  54. Jump up^ “Looking to raise awareness at ArtPrize”WWMT, Newschannel 3. 10 January 2012. Archived from the original on 6 October 2012. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
  55. Jump up^ “SciCafe – Art/Sci Collision: Raising Ocean Conservation Awareness”. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
  56. Jump up^ “SMU students raise awareness with ‘Art for Darfur'”SMU News Release. 4 March 2008. Archived from the original on 3 April 2013. Retrieved 21 February 2003.
  57. Jump up^ Donnelly, Greg (3 May 2012). “Red dress art project to raise awareness of murdered and missing Aboriginal women”Global Edmonton. Retrieved 21 February2013.[dead link]
  58. Jump up^ “Raising elder abuse awareness through intergenerational art”. Human Resources and Skills Development Canada. Archived from the original on 22 January 2013. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
  59. Jump up^ Mathema, Paavan (16 January 2013). “Trash to treasure: Turning Mt. Everest waste into art”CNN. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
  60. Jump up^ Roland BarthesMythologies
  61. Jump up^ Dutton, Denis. 2003. “Aesthetics and Evolutionary Psychology” in The Oxford Handbook for Aesthetics. Oxford University Press.
  62. Jump up^ Sharp, Willoughby (December 1969). “An Interview with Joseph Beuys”. ArtForum8(4): 45.
  63. Jump up^ Rorimer, Anne: New Art in the 60s and 70s Redefining Reality, p. 35. Thames and Hudson, 2001.
  64. Jump up^ Fineman, Mia (21 March 2007). “YouTube for Artists The best places to find video art online”Slate. Retrieved 3 August 2007.
  65. Jump up^ Robertson, Jean and Craig McDaniel: Themes of Contemporary Art, Visual Art after 1980, p. 16. Oxford University Press, 2005.
  66. Jump up^ “go to nature in all singleness of heart, rejecting nothing and selecting nothing, and scorning nothing, believing all things are right and good, and rejoicing always in the truth”. Ruskin, JohnModern Painters, Volume I, 1843. London: Smith, Elder and Co.
  67. Jump up^ Wollheim 1980, Essay VI. pp. 231–39.
  68. Jump up^ Griselda Pollock, Differencing the Canon. Routledge, London & New York, 1999. ISBN 0-415-06700-6
  69. Jump up to:a b Modern Art and Modernism: A Critical Anthology. ed. Francis Frascina and Charles Harrison, 1982.
  70. Jump up^ Duchamp Two Statements on YouTube[dead link]
  71. Jump up^ Leitch, Vincent B. , et al., eds. The Norton Anthology of Theory and Criticism. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2001.
  72. Jump up^ Gaut and Livingston, The Creation of Art, p. 3.
  73. Jump up to:a b Gaut and Livingston, p. 6.
  74. Jump up^ Philosophy for Architecture, Branco Mitrovic, 2012.
  75. Jump up^ Introduction to Structuralism, Michael Lane, Basic Books University of Michigan, 1970.
  76. Jump up^ Languages of Art: An Approach to a Theory of Symbols. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1968. 2nd ed. Indianapolis: Hackett, 1976. Based on his 1960–61 John Locke lectures.
  77. Jump up^ Nick Zangwill, “Feasible Aesthetic Formalism”, Nous, December 1999, pp. 610–29.
  78. Jump up^ Tomkins, Duchamp: A Biography, p. 186.
  79. Jump up^ Deborah Solomon (14 December 2003). “2003: the 3rd Annual Year in Ideas: Video Game Art”The New York Times Magazine.
  80. Jump up^ Painter, Colin. Contemporary Art and the Home. Berg Publishers, 2002. p. 12. ISBN 1-85973-661-0
  81. Jump up^ Dutton, Denis “Tribal Art” in Encyclopedia of Aesthetics, edited by Michael Kelly (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998).
  82. Jump up^ Danto, Arthur. “Artifact and Art” in Art/Artifact, edited by Susan Vogel. New York, 1988.
  83. Jump up to:a b c d e f “Glossary: Anti-art”Tate. Retrieved 23 January 2010.
  84. Jump up^ Schneider, Caroline. “Asger Jorn”Artforum, 1 September 2001. Retrieved from encyclopedia.com, 24 January 2010. Archived 13 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  85. Jump up^ Ferguson, Euan. “In bed with Tracey, Sarah … and Ron”The Observer, 20 April 2003. Retrieved on 2 May 2009.
  86. Jump up^ “Stuck on the Turner Prize”artnet, 27 October 2000. Retrieved on 2 May 2009.
  87. Jump up^ Graham, Gordon (2005). Philosophy of the arts: an introduction to aesthetics. Taylor & Francis.

Bibliography

  • Shiner, Larry. The Invention of Art: A Cultural History. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003. ISBN 978-0-226-75342-3
  • Arthur DantoThe Abuse of Beauty: Aesthetics and the Concept of Art. 2003
  • Dana Arnold and Margaret Iverson (eds.) Art and Thought. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 2003
  • Michael Ann Holly and Keith Moxey (eds.) Art History Aesthetics Visual Studies. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002. ISBN 0300097891
  • John Whitehead. Grasping for the Wind, 2001
  • Noel Carroll, Theories of Art Today, 2000
  • Evelyn Hatcher, ed. Art as Culture: An Introduction to the Anthropology of Art, 1999
  • Catherine de Zegher (ed.). Inside the Visible. MIT Press, 1996
  • Nina Felshin, ed. But is it Art?, 1995
  • Stephen Davies, Definitions of Art, 1991
  • Oscar Wilde, Intentions, 1891.
  • Jean Robertson and Craig McDaniel, Themes of Contemporary Art, Visual Art after 1980, 2005

Further reading

External links

Salma Hayek portraits

Salma Hayek Pinault (née Hayek Jiménez; born September 2, 1966), is a Mexican and American film actress, producer, and former model. She began her career in Mexico starring in the telenovela Teresa and starred in the film El Callejón de los Milagros (Miracle Alley) for which she was nominated for an Ariel Award. In 1991 Hayek moved to Hollywood and came to prominence with roles in films such as Desperado (1995), From Dusk Till Dawn (1996), Dogma (1999), and Wild Wild West (1999).

Salma Hayek
Salma Hayek 2, 2012.jpg

Hayek in 2012
Born Salma Hayek Jiménez
September 2, 1966 (age 51)
CoatzacoalcosVeracruz, Mexico
Nationality Mexican, American
Alma mater Universidad Iberoamericana
Occupation Actress, producer, model
Years active 1988–present
Height 1.57 m (5 ft 2 in)[1]
Spouse(s) François-Henri Pinault (m. 2009)
Children 1

 

Salma Hayek attends the ‘Il Racconto Dei Racconti’ (‘Tale of Tales’) photocall during the 68th annual Cannes Film Festival on May 14, 2015 in Cannes, France.

Salma Hayek attends the ‘Il Racconto Dei Racconti’ (‘Tale of Tales’) photocall during the 68th annual Cannes Film Festival on May 14, 2015 in Cannes, France.

. . .

Salma Hayek in Art

Lady of the Butterflies: Portrait of Salma Hayek (C) 2001, Acrylic on Canvas, Dimensions 24" x 30" h, Robert Rodriguez Collection

George Yepes: Lady of the Butterflies: Portrait of Salma Hayek (C) 2001, Acrylic on Canvas, Dimensions 24″ x 30″ h, Robert Rodriguez Collection

George Yepes: Lady of the Butterflies: Portrait of Salma Hayek (C) 2001, Acrylic on Canvas, Dimensions 24" x 30" h, Robert Rodriguez Collection

George Yepes: Lady of the Butterflies: Portrait of Salma Hayek (C) 2001, Acrylic on Canvas, Dimensions 24″ x 30″ h, Robert Rodriguez Collection

. . .

MORE Canada Cover, October 2012

Salma Hayek

Salma Hayek – MORE Canada Magazine (October 2012) Photography by Alexei Hay, Article “Salma makes waves” by Johanna Schneller.

With her new film Here Comes the Boom set to hit theaters on October 12th, Salma Hayek covers the October 2012 issue of Canada’s More magazine. The actress, 46, opens up about her 5-year-old daughter Valentina, motherhood, and being “at the limit of chubbiness at all times.”

. . .

Salma Hayek

Salma Hayek At Jason Kim Photoshoot For Evening Standard September 2015 (Read more: Celebzz.com)

Salma Hayek

Salma Hayek

SHM01. MIAMI (FL, USA), 09/07 / 2013.- An image courtesy of Sony Pictures today, Tuesday July 9, 2013, shows Mexican actress Salma Hayek in a scene from the movie "Grown Ups" in Miami (FL, USA). Hayek confessed that she had rejected "many" jobs in order to be with her family and enjoy a more homely life, and she was grateful for the support her husband and daughter provide for their careers. "To many things I said no and I do not regret it," said the actress, nominated for an Oscar for her starring role in "Frida" (2003) and who returns to the screens this Friday with the sequel "Grown Ups" " Hayek, who is also a film producer, said she has been forced to work in large productions during the summer, when her five-year-old daughter, Valentina Paloma, does not go to school. "If you realize, I only work in the summers," affirmed the actress born in Veracruz, although she recognized that outside of this time, she had only accepted work when it was "small papers". EFE / Tracy Bennett / IMAGE CEDIDA / ONLY EDITORIAL USE / NO SALES

SHM01. MIAMI (FL, USA), 09/07 / 2013.- An image courtesy of Sony Pictures today, Tuesday July 9, 2013, shows Mexican actress Salma Hayek in a scene from the movie “Grown Ups” in Miami (FL, USA). Hayek confessed that she had rejected “many” jobs in order to be with her family and enjoy a more homely life, and she was grateful for the support her husband and daughter provide for their careers. “To many things I said no and I do not regret it,” said the actress, nominated for an Oscar for her starring role in “Frida” (2003) and who returns to the screens this Friday with the sequel “Grown Ups” ” Hayek, who is also a film producer, said she has been forced to work in large productions during the summer, when her five-year-old daughter, Valentina Paloma, does not go to school. “If you realize, I only work in the summers,” affirmed the actress born in Veracruz, although she recognized that outside of this time, she had only accepted work when it was “small papers”. EFE / Tracy Bennett / IMAGE CEDIDA / ONLY EDITORIAL USE / NO SALES

Salma Hayek

Salma Hayek

Salma Hayek

Salma Hayek

Salma Hayek

Salma Hayek

Salma_Hayek_black_leather_

Actress Salma Hayek arrives at the McQ Alexander McQueen Runway Show at the Old Sorting Office during London Fashion Week on February 20, 2012 in London, UK.  (Feb. 21, 2012 – Source: FameFlynet Pictures) more pics from this album »

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Salma Hayek covers Vogue

Beautiful female actress, Salma Hayek is the cover girl for Vogue Magazine's German edition for the month of September 2012, Photographer by Alexi Lubomirski.

Beautiful female actress, Salma Hayek is the cover girl for Vogue Magazine’s German edition for the month of September 2012, Photography by Alexi Lubomirski. More at: Femaleboard.blogspot.com

The film Savages will be in cinemas come September/October across Europe. Which makes it perfect timing for Salma Hayek to land the September 2012 cover of Vogue Germany.

The film Savages will be in cinemas come September/October across Europe. Which makes it perfect timing for Salma Hayek to land the September 2012 cover of Vogue Germany.

The cover was photographed by Alexi Lubomirski.

Katy Perry

Katy Perry
Katy Perry in performance, with her left arm raised

Perry performing at the 2016 Democratic National Convention
Born Katheryn Elizabeth Hudson
October 25, 1984 (age 33)
Santa Barbara, California, U.S.
Other names
  • Katy Hudson
  • Katheryn Perry
Occupation
  • Singer
  • songwriter
  • actress
  • businesswoman
Net worth $125 million (2016 estimate)
Spouse(s) Russell Brand
(m. 2010; div. 2012)
Relatives Frank Perry (uncle)
Website katyperry.com
Musical career
Genres
Instruments
  • Vocals
  • guitar
Years active 2001–present
Labels
Associated acts The Matrix

Katheryn Elizabeth Hudson (born October 25, 1984), known professionally as Katy Perry, is an American singer and songwriter. After singing in church during her childhood, she pursued a career in gospel music as a teenager. Perry signed with Red Hill Records and released her debut studio album Katy Hudson under her birth name in 2001, which was commercially unsuccessful. She moved to Los Angeles the following year to venture into secular music after Red Hill ceased operations and she subsequently began working with producers Glen BallardDr. Luke, and Max Martin. After adopting the stage name Katy Perry and being dropped by The Island Def Jam Music Group and Columbia Records, she signed a recording contract with Capitol Records in April 2007.

Perry rose to fame in 2008 with the release of her second album, a pop rock record titled One of the Boys, and its singles “I Kissed a Girl” and “Hot n Cold“. The former track also sparked controversy for its sapphic themes. Her third album, Teenage Dream (2010), ventured into disco, and was her first number one album on the U.S. Billboard 200. It topped the U.S. Billboard Hot 100 with the singles “California Gurls“, “Teenage Dream“, “Firework“, “E.T.“, and “Last Friday Night (T.G.I.F.)” while “The One That Got Away” reached number 3 on the chart. The album became the first by a female artist to produce five number-one songs in the U.S., and the second overall after Michael Jackson‘s album Bad. In March 2012, she re-issued the album as Teenage Dream: The Complete Confection, which produced the songs “Part of Me” and “Wide Awake“. Her fourth album, Prism, was released in 2013, and was her second album to reach the US summit. It is influenced by pop and dance, and she became the first artist with multiple videos to reach one billion views on Vevo with the videos for its songs “Roar” and “Dark Horse“. Her 2017 fifth album, Witness, also topped the US charts and delved into electropop. Its most successful single was “Chained to the Rhythm“, which broke the record for Spotify‘s most streamed track by a female artist within 24 hours upon its release.

Perry has received many awards, including four Guinness World Records, five American Music Awards, a Brit Award, and a Juno Award, and has been included in the annual Forbes lists of highest earning women in music from 2011–2017. Her estimated net worth as of 2016 is $125 million. She is one of the best-selling music artists of all time, having sold 100 million records globally throughout her career. In film, she released an autobiographical documentary titled Katy Perry: Part of Me in 2012, and voiced Smurfette in the 2011 film The Smurfs and its sequel in 2013.

Life and career

1984–1998: Early life

Katheryn Elizabeth Hudson was born in Santa Barbara, California, to Pentecostal pastors Mary Christine (née Perry) and Maurice Keith Hudson.[1][2] Her parents are born again Christians, each having turned to religion after a “wild youth”.[3] Perry has English, German, Irish, and Portuguese ancestry.[4] Through her mother, she is a niece of film director Frank Perry.[5] She has a younger brother named David, who is a singer,[6] and an older sister, Angela.[7] From ages 3 to 11, Perry often moved across the country as her parents set up churches before settling again in Santa Barbara. Growing up, she attended religious schools and camps, including Paradise Valley Christian School in Arizona and Santa Barbara Christian School in California during her elementary years.[2][8] Her family struggled financially,[9] sometimes using food stamps and eating from the food bank intended to feed the congregation at her parents’ church.[10]

Growing up, Perry and her siblings were not allowed to eat the cereal Lucky Charms as the term “luck” reminded their mother of Lucifer, and had to call deviled eggs “angeled eggs”.[11] Perry primarily listened to gospel music,[12] as secular music was generally discouraged in the family’s home. She discovered popular music through CDs she sneaked from her friends.[13] While not strictly identifying as religious, Perry has stated, “I pray all the time – for self-control, for humility.”[14] Following her sister Angela, Perry began singing by practicing with her sister’s cassette tapes. She performed the tracks in front of their parents, who suggested she take vocal lessons. She began training at age 9,[15] and was incorporated into her parents’ ministry,[3] singing in church from ages 9 to 17.[16] At 13, Perry was given her first guitar for her birthday,[3][17] and publicly performed songs she wrote.[9] She tried to “be a bit like the typical Californian girl” while growing up, and started rollerskating, skateboarding, and surfing as a teenager. Perry’s brother David described her as a tomboy during her adolescence.[18] She took dancing lessons and learned how to swingLindy Hop, and jitterbug.[19]

1999–2006: Career beginnings

Perry completed her General Educational Development (GED) requirements at age 15,[20] during her freshman year of high school,[21] and left Dos Pueblos High School to pursue a musical career. She briefly studied Italian opera at the Music Academy of the West in Santa Barbara. Her singing caught the attention of rock artists Steve Thomas and Jennifer Knapp from Nashville, Tennessee, who brought her there to improve her writing skills.[22] In Nashville, she started recording demos and learned how to write songs and play guitar.[12] After signing with Red Hill Records, Perry recorded her debut album, a gospel record titled Katy Hudson. She released the album on March 6, 2001, and went on tour that year as part of Phil Joel‘s Strangely Normal Tour[23][24] while also embarking on other performances of her own in the United States.[25] Katy Hudson received positive reviews from critics, though was commercially unsuccessful and sold an estimated 200 copies before the label ceased operations in December.[26][27] Transitioning from gospel music to secular music, Perry started writing songs with producer Glen Ballard,[28] and moved to Los Angeles at age 17.[29] In 2003, she briefly performed as Katheryn Perry to avoid confusion with actress Kate Hudson. She later adopted the stage name Katy Perry, using her mother’s maiden name.[30]

In 2004, Perry signed to Ballard’s label, Java, which was then affiliated with The Island Def Jam Music Group. She began work on a solo record, but the record was shelved after Java was dropped.[31] Ballard then introduced Perry to Tim Devine, an A&R executive at Columbia Records, and she was signed as a solo artist. Over the course of the next two years, Perry wrote and recorded material for her Columbia debut, and worked with songwriters including Desmond ChildGreg WellsButch WalkerScott CutlerAnne PrevenThe MatrixKara DioGuardiMax Martin and Dr. Luke.[32][33] In addition, after Devine suggested that songwriting team The Matrix become a “real group”, Perry recorded with them.[34] Perry was dropped from Columbia in 2006 as her record neared completion. After the label dropped her, she worked at an independent A&R company called Taxi Music.[35]

Perry had minor success prior to her breakthrough. One of the songs she had recorded for her album with Ballard, “Simple”, was featured on the soundtrack to the 2005 film The Sisterhood of the Traveling Pants.[36] She provided backing vocals on Mick Jagger‘s song “Old Habits Die Hard“,[37] which was included on the soundtrack to the 2004 film Alfie.[38] In September 2004, Blender named Perry “The Next Big Thing”.[36] She recorded background vocals on P.O.D.‘s single “Goodbye for Now” and was featured at the end of its music video in 2006. That year, Perry also appeared in the music video for “Learn to Fly” by Carbon Leaf, and played the love interest of her then-boyfriend, Gym Class Heroes lead singer Travie McCoy, in the band’s music video for “Cupid’s Chokehold“.[39]

2007–2009: Breakthrough with One of the Boys

After Columbia dropped Perry, Angelica Cob-Baehler, then a publicity executive at the label, brought Perry’s demos to Virgin Records chairman Jason Flom. Flom was convinced that she could be a breakthrough star and she was signed to Capitol Records in April 2007. The label arranged for her to work with Dr. Luke in order to add an “undeniable smash” to her existing material.[40][41] Perry and Dr. Luke co-wrote the songs “I Kissed a Girl” and “Hot n Cold” for her second album One of the Boys. A campaign was started with the November 2007 release of the video to “Ur So Gay“, aimed at introducing her to the music market.[42] A digital EP led by “Ur So Gay” was later released to create interest.[3][43] Madonna helped publicize the song by praising the track on the JohnJay & Rich radio show in April 2008,[44] stating it was her “favorite song” at the time.[45] In March 2008, Perry made a cameo appearance as a club singer in the Wildfire episode “Life’s Too Short”[46] and appeared as herself during a photo shoot that June on The Young and the Restless for the show’s magazine Restless Style.[47]

Katy Perry performing on the Warped Tour 2008

 Perry was part of the 2008 Warped Tour lineup

Perry released her first single with Capitol, “I Kissed a Girl”, on April 28, 2008,[48] as the lead single from One of the Boys. The first station to pick up the song was WRVW in Nashville, who were inundated with enthusiastic calls the first three days they played it.[43] The track reached number one on the US Billboard Hot 100.[49] “I Kissed a Girl” created controversy among both religious and LGBT groups. The former criticized its homosexual themes while the latter accused her of using bi-curiosity to sell records. In response to speculation that her parents opposed her music and career, Perry told MTV that they had no problems with her success.[50] One of the Boys, released on June 17, 2008, garnered mixed critical reviews and reached number nine on the US Billboard 200.[51][52] The album went on to sell 7 million copies worldwide.[53] “Hot n Cold” was released the following September[54] and became the album’s second successful single, reaching number three on the Billboard Hot 100[55] while topping charts in Germany,[56] Canada,[57] the Netherlands[58] and Austria.[59] Later singles “Thinking of You” and “Waking Up in Vegas” were released in 2009[60][61] and reached the top 30 of the Hot 100.[55] The Matrix’s self-titled debut album, which Perry had recorded with the band in 2004, was released onto iTunes on January 27, 2009, as a result of her solo success.[38][62]

After finishing the 2008 Warped Tour,[63] Perry hosted the 2008 MTV Europe Music Awards in November 2008, where she won the award for Best New Act.[64] At the 2009 Brit Awards, she also won the award for International Female Solo Artist.[65] Perry embarked on her first headlining world tour, the Hello Katy Tour, from January to November 2009 to support One of the Boys.[66] On August 4, 2009, she performed as opening act for one date of No Doubt‘s Summer Tour 2009.[67] Perry also hosted the 2009 MTV Europe Music Awards in November 2009, becoming the first person to host two consecutive ceremonies of the European awards.[68] On July 22, 2009, Perry recorded a live album titled MTV Unplugged, which featured acoustic performances of five tracks from One of the Boys as well as two new songs: “Brick by Brick” and “Hackensack”.[69] It was released on November 17, 2009.[70] Perry also appeared on two singles with other artists; she was featured on a remix of Colorado-based band 3OH!3‘s song “Starstrukk” in September 2009,[71] and on a duet with Timbaland entitled “If We Ever Meet Again“, from his album Shock Value II, in January 2010.[72][73] The Guinness World Records recognized her in its 2010 edition as the “Best Start on the U.S. Digital Chart by a Female Artist”, for digital single sales of over two million copies.[74]

After her relationship with Travis McCoy ended in December 2008,[75] Perry met her future husband Russell Brand in the summer of 2009 while filming a cameo appearance for his film Get Him to the Greek. Her scene, in which the two kiss, does not appear in the film.[76] She began dating Brand after meeting him again that September at the 2009 MTV Video Music Awards.[77] The couple became engaged on December 31, 2009, while vacationing in Rajasthan, India.[78]

2010–2012: Teenage Dream and marriage

After serving as a guest judge on American Idol,[79] Perry released “California Gurls” featuring Snoop Dogg on May 7, 2010.[80] The song was the lead single from her third studio album, Teenage Dream, and reached number one on the Billboard Hot 100 in June.[81]She also served as a guest judge on The X Factor UK later that month[82] before releasing the album’s second single, “Teenage Dream“, in July.[83] “Teenage Dream” reached number one on the Billboard Hot 100 in September.[84] Released on August 24, 2010,[85]Teenage Dream debuted at number one on the Billboard 200,[86] and received mixed reviews from music critics.[87] It has since sold 6 million copies worldwide.[88] Teenage Dream would go on to win the 2011 Juno Award for International Album of the Year.[89] In October, “Firework” was released as the album’s third single.[90] It became the album’s third consecutive number one on the Billboard Hot 100 on December 8, 2010.[91]

E.T.” featuring Kanye West was released as the fourth single from Teenage Dream on February 16, 2011.[92] It topped the Billboard Hot 100 for five non-consecutive weeks, making Teenage Dream the ninth album in history to produce four number one singles on the chart.[93] “Last Friday Night (T.G.I.F.)” followed as the fifth single in June,[94] and Perry became the first female artist to achieve five number-one Billboard Hot 100 songs from one album when the single topped that chart on August 17, and the second artist after Michael Jackson with his album Bad.[95] For this record, she received an honorary American Music Award in November 2011[96] and a 2013 Guinness World Record.[97] On September 7, she set a new record by becoming the first artist to spend 69 consecutive weeks in the top ten of the Hot 100.[98] In October, “The One That Got Away” was released as the album’s sixth single.[99] The song peaked at number three in the US[100] and number two in Canada.[57] On January 5, 2012, Perry was named the sixth best-selling digital artist in the United States, with sales of 37.6 million units according to Nielsen SoundScan.[101] That month, she became the first artist to have four songs sell over 5 million digital units.[102] On February 13, Capitol released the lead single from Teenage Dream: The Complete Confection, “Part of Me“, which debuted at number one on the Billboard Hot 100 and became Perry’s seventh single overall to top the chart.[103] Teenage Dream: The Complete Confection was released on March 23.[104] “Wide Awake” was released on May 22 as the re-release’s second single,[105] peaking at number two on the Billboard Hot 100[100] and number one in Canada[57] and New Zealand.[106]

Katy Perry performing during the California Dreams Tour

 Perry’s California Dreams Tour grossed $59.5 million

Perry embarked on her second tour, the California Dreams Tour, in support of Teenage Dream[66] from February 2011 to January 2012.[107] The tour grossed $59.5 million globally[108] and won her the award for Best Live Act at the 2011 MTV Europe Music Awards.[109] On September 23, 2011, she performed on the opening day of the 2011 Rock in Rio festival along with Elton John and Rihanna.[110] In September 2010, Perry was scheduled to appear on the 41st-season premiere of Sesame Street. After her scene was uploaded to YouTube, viewers criticized Perry’s exposed cleavage. Four days before the scheduled airing, Sesame Workshop announced that the segment would not air on television, but would still be available to watch online.[111] Perry subsequently mocked the controversy on Saturday Night Live, where she was a musical guest and wore an Elmo-themed shirt showing large amounts of cleavage during one skit.[112]

In December 2010, Perry played Moe Szyslak‘s girlfriend in the live-action segment from a Christmas episode of The Simpsons titled “The Fight Before Christmas“.[113][114] In February 2011, she made a guest appearance on the How I Met Your Mother episode “Oh Honey“, playing a woman known as Honey.[115] The role won her the People’s Choice Award for Favorite TV Guest Star in January 2012.[116] She made her film debut in the 3D family motion picture The Smurfs as Smurfette on July 29, 2011. The film was a financial success worldwide,[117] while critics gave mostly negative reviews.[118] She hosted Saturday Night Live on December 10, 2011, with Robyn as the episode’s musical guest. Perry’s work on the episode received generally positive reviews from critics, who praised her performance in the episode’s digital short featuring her and Andy Samberg.[119] In March 2012, she guest starred as a prison security guard named Rikki on the Raising Hope episode “Single White Female Role Model”.[120] On July 5, 2012, Perry’s autobiographical documentary Katy Perry: Part of Me was released to theaters through Paramount Pictures.[121][122] The film received positive reviews[123] and grossed $32.7 million worldwide at the box office.[124]

Perry began to venture into business when she endorsed her first fragrance, Purr, in November 2010. Her second fragrance, Meow!, was released in December 2011. Both perfumes were released through Nordstrom department stores.[125][126] Electronic Arts recruited her to promote their new expansion pack for The Sims 3: Showtime,[127] before releasing a separate stuff pack featuring Perry-inspired furniture, outfits, and hairstyles, titled The Sims 3: Katy Perry’s Sweet Treats, in June 2012.[128] The following month, she became the spokesperson and ambassador for Popchips and made an investment in the company.[129] Billboard dubbed her as their “Woman of the Year” for 2012.[130]

She married Russell Brand on October 23, 2010 in a traditional Hindu ceremony near the Ranthambhore tiger sanctuary in Rajasthan, India.[131] Brand announced on December 30, 2011 that they were divorcing after 14 months of marriage.[132] Perry later stated that conflicting career schedules and his desire to have children before she was ready led to the end of their marriage,[133] and that he never spoke to her again after sending a text message that he was divorcing her[134] while Brand asserted that he divorced her due to her commercial success and reluctance to engage in activism.[135] She was initially distraught over their divorce, and said that she contemplated suicide.[136][137] After the marriage ended in 2012,[138] Perry began a relationship with singer John Mayer that August.[139]

2013–2015: Prism and Super Bowl XLIX halftime show

In November 2012, Perry began work on her fourth album, Prism. She told Billboard, “I know exactly the record I want to make next. I know the artwork, the coloring and the tone” and “I even know what type of tour I’m doing next. I’ll be very pleased if the vision I have in my head becomes a reality.”[140] Although she told L’Uomo Vogue in June 2012 that she planned to have “darker elements” in Prism following the end of her marriage,[141] Perry revealed to MTV during the 2013 MTV Video Music Awards that she changed the album’s direction after periods of self-reflection. She commented “I felt very prismatic”, which inspired the album’s name.[142] “Roar” was released as the lead single from Prism on August 10, 2013.[143] It was promoted at the MTV Video Music Awards and reached number one on the Billboard Hot 100.[144][145] “Unconditionally” was released as the second single from Prism on October 16, 2013,[146] and peaked at number 14 in the United States.[147]

Katy Perry performing in a pink cloak, during the Prismatic World Tour

 Perry performing during the Prismatic World Tour in July 2014

Prism was released on October 18, 2013, and has sold 4 million copies as of August 2015.[148] It received favorable reviews from critics[149] and debuted at number one on the Billboard 200 chart.[150] Four days later, Perry performed the songs from the album at the iHeartRadio Theater in Los Angeles.[151] “Dark Horse” with Juicy J was released as the album’s third single in December, and became her ninth U.S. number-one single the following month.[152][153] In 2014, “Birthday” and “This Is How We Do” respectively followed as the album’s fourth and fifth singles,[154][155] and reached the top 25 on the Hot 100.[55] Prior to ending her relationship with Mayer in February 2014,[156][157] she recorded and co-wrote a duet with him titled “Who You Love” for his album Paradise Valley. The song was released on August 12, 2013.[158] Perry’s third headlining tour, the Prismatic World Tour, began in May 2014[107] and concluded in October 2015.[148] It sold almost 2 million tickets and grossed $204.3 million worldwide[159] and won Perry the award for “Top Package” at the 2014 Billboard Touring Awards.[160] She also performed at the 2015 Rock in Rio festival on September 27, 2015.[161]

On November 23, 2014, the NFL announced that Perry would perform at the Super Bowl XLIX halftime show on February 1, 2015.[162] Lenny Kravitz and Missy Elliott served as special guests for the show.[163] Her performance was critically acclaimed,[164] and the Guinness World Records announced two days after the singer’s halftime show that it garnered 118.5 million viewers in the United States, becoming the most watched and highest rated show in Super Bowl history. The viewership was higher than the game itself, which was viewed by an audience of 114.4 million.[165]

The International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI) ranked her fifth on the list of Top Global Recording Artists of 2013.[166] On June 26, 2014, she was declared the Top Certified Digital Artist Ever by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) for certified sales of 72 million digital singles in the United States.[167][168] In May 2014, a portrait of Perry by painter Mark Ryden was featured in his exhibition “The Gay 90s”, and shown at the Kohn Gallery in Los Angeles. Along with several other artists, she also recorded a cover version of the song “Daisy Bell (Bicycle Built for Two)” on a limited-edition concept album titled The Gay Nineties Old Tyme Music: Daisy Bell to accompany the exhibition.[169] That month, a portrait of Perry by artist Will Cotton was included in the United States National Portrait Gallery.[170] On November 23, 2015, Perry starred in H&M‘s holiday advertising campaign, for which she wrote and recorded a song titled “Every Day Is a Holiday“.[171][172]

On June 17, 2014, Perry announced that she had founded her own record label under Capitol Records, titled Metamorphosis Music. Ferras was the first artist to get signed to her label, and Perry served as an executive producer on his self-titled EP. She also recorded a duet with him on the EP, titled “Legends Never Die”.[173] The label was later renamed Unsub Records.[174]

Outside of her music career, Perry reprised her role as Smurfette in The Smurfs 2, which was released in theaters on July 31, 2013.[175] Like its predecessor, The Smurfs 2 was a financial success[176] but was panned by critics.[177] In March 2014, she made a guest appearance playing herself in the episode “Blisteritos Presents Dad Academy Graduation Congraduritos Red Carpet Viewing Party” of the Kroll Show.[178] Killer Queen was released as her third fragrance in August 2013 through Coty, Inc.[179] In January 2014, she became a guest curator of Madonna’s Art for Freedom initiative.[180] In March 2015, she appeared in Brand: A Second Coming, a documentary following her ex-husband Russell Brand’s transition from comedy work to activism,[135] and released a concert film titled Katy Perry: The Prismatic World Tour through Epix, which took place during her tour of the same name.[122] Perry also made a cameo appearance in the music video for Madonna’s song “Bitch I’m Madonna” in June 2015.[181] The following month, she released another fragrance with Coty, entitled Mad Potion.[182] In September 2015, she appeared in the documentaries Katy Perry: Making of the Pepsi Super Bowl Halftime Show, which followed Perry’s preparation for her Super Bowl performance,[183] and Jeremy Scott: The People’s Designer, which followed the life and career of designer Jeremy Scott.[184] Perry released a mobile app titled Katy Perry Pop in December 2015 through Glu Mobile where her character helps players become famous musicians.[185] She described it as “the most fun, colorful world that helps guide your musical dreams”.[186]

2016–present: Witness and American Idol

Perry started writing songs for a new album in June 2016.[187] She recorded an anthem for NBC Sports‘s coverage of the 2016 Summer Olympics titled “Rise“, which was released the following month. Perry chose to release it as a standalone track rather than save it for her album “because now more than ever, there is a need for our world to unite”. NBC also felt its message spoke “directly to the spirit of the Olympics and its athletes” for its inspirational themes.[188] The song reached number one in Australia[189] and number eleven in the United States.[55]

Perry in a blue dazzling blouse and short cropped hair singing onstage

 Perry performing on Witness: The Tour in October 2017

In August 2016, Perry stated that she aspired to create material “that connects and relates and inspires”[190] and told Ryan Seacrest that she was “not rushing” her fifth album, adding “I’m just having a lot of fun, but experimenting and trying different producers, and different collaborators, and different styles”.[191] On February 10, 2017, Perry released the album’s lead single with Skip Marley titled “Chained to the Rhythm“,[192][193] which reached number one in Hungary[194] and number four in the United States.[55] The track was also streamed over 3 million streams on Spotify within 24 hours, breaking its record for the highest first-day streaming for a single track by a female artist.[195] The album’s second single, “Bon Appétit“, features Migos and was released that April.[196] Its third single, “Swish Swish” featuring Nicki Minaj, followed the next month.[197] They respectively peaked at numbers 59 and 46 in the United States,[55] and made the top 15 in Canada.[57]

The album, titled Witness, was released on June 9, 2017 to mixed reviews,[198] and debuted at number one in the United States.[199] To accompany the album’s release, Perry broadcast herself on YouTube for four days with a live-stream titled Katy Perry Live: Witness World Wide, concluding with a live concert on June 12.[200] The live-stream generated over 49 million views from 190 different countries,[201] and a behind-the-scenes special for it titled Will You Be My Witness? premiered on YouTube Red the following October.[202] She also embarked on Witness: The Tour, which began in September 2017 and is scheduled to end in August 2018.[203] On June 15, Calvin Harris released a song titled “Feels” featuring Perry, Big Sean, and Pharrell Williams from his album Funk Wav Bounces Vol. 1,[204] which reached number one in the United Kingdom.[205]

Outside of recording music, Perry appeared as herself in the film Zoolander 2, which was released in February 2016.[206][207] In February 2017, the singer launched a shoe line titled “Katy Perry Collections”.[208] The following August, she hosted the 2017 MTV Video Music Awards.[209] Perry was signed for a $25-million salary to serve as a judge on ABC‘s revival of American Idol, due for broadcast in March 2018.[210][211]

Artistry

Influences

Alanis Morissette playing guitar
Freddie Mercury performing
Alanis Morissette (left) and Freddie Mercury (right) both significantly influenced Perry and her music

During the early stages of her career, Perry’s musical style gravitated towards gospel and she aspired to be as successful as Amy Grant.[212] At the age of 15, she heard Queen‘s “Killer Queen,” which inspired her to pursue a career in music.[213] She cites the band’s frontman, Freddie Mercury, as her biggest influence and expressed how the “combination of his sarcastic approach to writing lyrics and his ‘I don’t give a fuck’ attitude” inspired her music.[214] She paid homage to the band by naming her third fragrance Killer Queen.[179] Perry described The Beach Boys and their album Pet Sounds as having a considerable influence on her music: “Pet Sounds is one of my favorite records and it influenced pretty much all of my songwriting. All of the melody choices that I make are because of Pet Sounds.”[215] The singer also holds the Beatles‘ album The Beatles in high esteem, and described these two albums as “the only things I listened to for probably two years straight.”[216]

Perry cites Alanis Morissette and her 1995 album Jagged Little Pill as a significant musical inspiration, and opted to work with Morissette’s frequent collaborator Ballard as a result. Perry stated, “Jagged Little Pill was the most perfect female record ever made. There’s a song for anyone on that record; I relate to all those songs. They’re still so timeless.” Additionally, Perry borrows influence from Flaming Red by Patty Griffin and 10 Cent Wings by Jonatha Brooke.[217] Perry intends to become “more of a Joni Mitchell“, releasing folk and acoustic music.[218] Perry’s autobiographical documentary Katy Perry: Part of Me was largely influenced by Madonna: Truth or Dare. She admires Madonna’s ability to reinvent herself, saying “I want to evolve like Madonna”,[219] and has credited Madonna for inspiring her to make Prism “darker” than her previous material.[220]

Perry names Björk as an influence, particularly admiring her “willingness to always be taking chances”.[217] Other musicians who Perry has cited as influences include ABBAThe Cardigans,[221] Cyndi Lauper,[222] Ace of Base3OH!3,[223] CeCe PenistonC+C Music FactoryBlack BoxCrystal WatersMariah Carey,[218] Heart, Joni Mitchell, Paul SimonImogen HeapRufus Wainwright,[224] Pink,[225] and Gwen Stefani.[217] “Firework” was inspired by a passage in the book On the Road by Jack Kerouac in which the author compares people who are full of life to fireworks that shoot across the sky and make people watch in awe.[226] Her second concert tour, the California Dreams Tour, was reminiscent of Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland and The Wonderful Wizard of Oz.[227] She also credits the 1996 movie The Craft for inspiring her song “Dark Horse”,[228] and Eckhart Tolle‘s book The Power of Now for influencing Prism.[136]

Musical style and themes

“When I am in between records, sometimes I doubt myself. I’ll be like ‘Did I just get lucky, or did I mass-manipulate the world into thinking that seven songs were worth a number-one position?’ And then I go back into the studio and I start writing, and the true essential oil of who I am comes bubbling back up and reminds me that it’s always been inside of me, that nobody can take this away no matter what comment anyone makes.”

—Perry on her confidence as a songwriter[229]

While Perry’s music incorporates poprock, and discoKaty Hudson contains gospel. Her subsequent releases, One of the Boys and Teenage Dream, involve themes of sex and love. One of the Boys is a pop rock record, while Teenage Dream features disco influences.[230][231] Perry’s fourth album, Prism, is significantly influenced by dance and pop music. Lyrically, the album addresses relationships, self-reflection, and everyday life.[232] The singer’s fifth studio effort Witness is an electropop album that she described as a “360-degree liberation” record, with themes including political liberation, sexual liberation, and liberation from negativity.[233][234] Many of her songs, particularly on Teenage Dream, reflect on love between teenagers; W described the album’s sexual innuendos as “irresistible hook-laden melodies”.[29] Self-empowerment is a common theme in Perry’s music.[235]

Perry describes herself as a “singer-songwriter masquerading as a pop star”[236] and maintains that honest songwriting is very important to her. She told Marie Claire: “I feel like my secret magic trick that separates me from a lot of my peers is the bravery to be vulnerable and truthful and honest. I think you become more relatable when you’re vulnerable.”[14] Kristen Wiig commented that “as easy, breezy, and infectious as Perry’s songs can be, beneath the surface lurks a sea of mixed emotions, jumbled motives, and contradictory impulses complicated enough to fill a Carole King record.”[216] According to Greg Kot of the Chicago Tribune, “being taken seriously may be Perry’s greatest challenge yet.”[237] The New York Times labeled her “the most potent pop star of the day – her hits are relatable with just a hint of experimentation”.[238] Randall Roberts of the Los Angeles Times criticized her use of idioms and metaphors in her lyrics and for frequent “clichés”.[239] Throughout her career, Perry has co-written songs recorded by other artists, including Selena Gomez & the Scene,[240][241] Jessie James,[242] Kelly Clarkson,[243]Lesley Roy,[244] Britney Spears,[245] Iggy Azalea,[246] Ariana Grande and Nicki Minaj.[247]

Voice

Perry has a contralto vocal range.[248][249] Her singing has received both praise and criticism. Betty Clarke of The Guardian commented that her “powerful voice is hard-edged”[250] while Rob Sheffield from Rolling Stone described Perry’s vocals on Teenage Dream as “processed staccato blips”.[231] Darren Harvey of musicOMH compared Perry’s vocals on One of the Boys to Alanis Morissette’s, both possessing a “perky voice shifting octaves mid-syllable”.[251] Alex Miller from NME felt that “Perry’s problem is often her voice” on One of the Boys, stating that “somewhere along the line someone convinced her she was like, well, a ballsy rock chick”.[252] Conversely, Bernadette McNulty from The Daily Telegraph praised her “rock chick voice” in a review of a concert promoting Prism.[253]

Public image

Perry performing in a dress decorated with peppermint swirls

 Perry’s characteristic spinning peppermint swirl dress

Perry is considered a sex symbolGQ labelled her a “full-on male fantasy”,[9] while Elle described her body “as though sketched by a teenage boy”.[21] Vice described her as a “‘serious’ popstar/woman/sex symbol”.[254] She was placed at number one on the Maxim Hot 100 in 2010 as the “most beautiful woman in the world”, with editor Joe Levy describing her as a “triple – no quadruple – kind of hot”.[255] Men’s Health readers voted her the “sexiest woman of 2013”.[256]In November 2010, Perry told Harper’s Bazaar that she was proud of and satisfied with her figure.[257]

Perry’s fashion often incorporates humor, bright colors, and food-related themes[258] such as her trademark spinning peppermint swirl dress.[259] Vogue described her as “never exactly one to shy away from the outrageous or the extreme in any realm”,[260] while Glamour named her the “queen of quirk”.[261] In February 2009, Perry told Seventeen that her fashion style was “a bit of a concoction of different things” and stated she enjoyed humor in her clothing.[262]She has also described herself as having “multipersonality disorder” for fashion.[257] Perry lists Gwen Stefani, Shirley MansonChloë SevignyDaphne GuinnessNatalie Portman, and the fictional character Lolita as her style icons.[29][263]

On social media, Perry surpassed Justin Bieber as the most followed person on Twitter in November 2013.[264] She won the 2015 Guinness World Record for most Twitter followers,[265] and became the first person to gain 100 million followers on the site in June 2017.[266] Keith Caulfield of Billboard stated that the singer is “the rare celebrity who seems to have enormous popularity but genuine ground-level interaction with her adoring KatyCats.”[267] With a combined total of over 245 million followers across FacebookInstagram, and Twitter, she is the fourth most followed musician across social media.[268] In June 2017, Time listed Perry among its “25 Most Influential People on the Internet” of the year, writing that her live-stream for Witness was “blazing a trail” for being “the closest any major entertainer has come to giving fans the kind of ‘real’ intimacy that social media purports to provide”.[269]

In 2011, Forbes ranked Perry third on their “Top-Earning Women In Music” list with earnings of $44 million[270] and fifth on their 2012 list with $45 million.[271] She subsequently ranked seventh on the 2013 Forbes list for “Top-Earning Women In Music” with $39 million earned,[272] and fifth on their 2014 list with $40 million.[273] With earnings of $135 million, Forbes also ranked Perry number one on their 2015 “Top-Earning Women In Music” list as well as the “World’s Highest-Paid Musicians” and declared her the highest earning female celebrity in 2015, placing her at number 3 on the Forbes Celebrity 100 list.[274] In 2016, the magazine estimated her net worth was $125 million,[275] and ranked her number six on the their list of “Highest-Paid Women in Music” with earnings of $41 million.[276] The following year, she was ranked number nine on the list with $33 million.[277]

Other ventures

Philanthropy

Perry posing for photographers at a UNICEF gala

 Perry became a UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador in December 2013

Perry has supported various charitable organizations and causes during her career. She has contributed to organizations aimed at improving the lives and welfare of children in particular. In April 2013, she joined UNICEF to assist children in Madagascar with education and nutrition.[278] On December 3, 2013, she was officially named a UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador, “with a special focus on engaging young people in the agency’s work to improve the lives of the world’s most vulnerable children and adolescents.”[279] She arranged for a portion of the money generated from tickets to her Prismatic World Tour to go to UNICEF.[280] In September 2010, she helped build and design the Boys Hope/Girls Hope foundation shelter for youth in Baltimore, Maryland along with Raven-SymonéShaquille O’Neal, and the cast of Extreme Makeover: Home Edition.[281]

She has also supported children’s education and well-being. All profits from sales of the album The Gay Nineties Old Tyme Music: Daisy Bell, which includes her rendition of “Daisy Bell (Bicycle Built for Two)”, were donated to the charity Little Kids Rock, which supports musical education in underprivileged elementary schools.[169] In June 2014, she teamed up with Staples Inc. for a project entitled “Make Roar Happen” which donated $1 million to DonorsChoose, an organization that supports teachers and funds classroom resources in public schools.[282] In May 2016, she worked with UNICEF to improve child care quality in Vietnam, hoping to “break the cycle of poverty and drastically improve children’s health, education and well-being”.[283] The following month, UNICEF announced that Perry would receive the Audrey Hepburn Humanitarian Award “for her work as a UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador in support of the world’s most vulnerable children” at their annual Snowflake Ball in November.[284]

Perry has supported organizations aimed at aiding people suffering with diseases including cancer and HIV/AIDS. During the 2008 Warped Tour, she had a cast made of her breasts to raise money for the Keep A Breast Foundation.[285]She hosted and performed at the We Can Survive concert along with Bonnie McKeeKacey MusgravesSara BareillesEllie Goulding, and duo Tegan and Sara at the Hollywood Bowl in Los Angeles, California, on October 23, 2013. The concert’s profits were donated to Young Survival Coalition, an organization aiding breast cancer in young women.[286] In June 2009, she designed an item of clothing for H&M‘s “Fashion Against AIDS” campaign, which raises money for HIV/AIDS awareness projects.[287] On February 26, 2017, she served as a co-chair alongside various celebrities such as BeyoncéLea MicheleJim CarreyJared Leto, and Kevin Spacey for the 25th Annual Elton John AIDS Foundation Academy Award Party, a fundraiser for HIV/AIDS healthcare.[288]

The proceeds from Perry’s single “Part of Me” were donated to the charity MusiCares, which helps musicians in times of need.[289] During her California Dreams Tour, she raised over $175,000 for the Tickets-For-Charity fundraiser. The money was divided between three charities: the Children’s Health Fund (CHF), Generosity Water, and The Humane Society of the United States.[290] On her 27th birthday, Perry set up a donations page for the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Auckland,[291] and set up a similar page benefiting the David Lynch Foundation for her 28th birthday.[292] On March 29, 2014, she helped raise $2.4 million for the Museum of Contemporary Art in Los Angeles along with other celebrities such as Ryan SeacrestPharrell WilliamsTim AllenLisa Edelstein, and Riley Keough.[293]

Perry performed at the One Love Manchester benefit concert for the victims of the 2017 Manchester Arena bombing amongst various other performers including its organizer Ariana Grande, which was broadcast live on June 4, 2017 through radio and various television stations throughout the world.[294]

Politics

Hillary Clinton and Perry pose with hands connected at a fundraising concert

 Perry performed at multiple ceremonies for Democratic presidential candidate Hillary Clinton during her 2016 campaign

Perry is a LGBT rights activist. She supported Stonewall during their “It gets better….. today” campaign to prevent homophobic bullying,[295] and dedicated the music video to her song “Firework” to the It Gets Better Project.[296] Perry told Do Something in November 2008 she was proud to be a gay activist, saying “I’ve always been a very open-minded person, but I definitely believe in equality.” She confirmed that she voted against Proposition 8, an amendment (ultimately ruled unconstitutional) that legally defined marriage as a union solely between a man and a woman in California.[297] In June 2012, Perry expressed her hopes for LGBT equality, commenting “hopefully, we will look back at this moment and think like we do now concerning [other] civil rights issues. We’ll just shake our heads in disbelief, saying, ‘Thank God we’ve evolved.’ That would be my prayer for the future.”[298] In December 2012, Perry was awarded the Trevor Hero Award by The Trevor Project for her work and activism on behalf of LGBT youth.[299] On March 18, 2017, she received a Nation Equality Award from Human Rights Campaign for “using her powerful voice and international platform to speak out for LGBTQ equality”, with the organization further stating that “Katy’s message of inclusion and equality continues to inspire us and the world”.[300]

Perry describes herself as a feminist,[301] and appeared in April 2013 in a video clip for the “Chime For Change” campaign that aimed to spread female empowerment.[302] She has also said that America’s lack of free health care drove her “absolutely crazy”.[303] Following the shooting at the Pulse nightclub in Orlando in June 2016, Perry and nearly 200 other artists and executives in music signed an open letter organized by Billboard addressed to United States Congress demanding increased gun control in the United States.[304]

Through Twitter and by performing at his rallies, Perry supported President Barack Obama in his run for re-election and praised his support for same-sex marriage[305] and LGBT equality.[306] She performed at three rallies for Obama, in Los Angeles, Las Vegas, and Wisconsin, singing a rendition of “Let’s Stay Together” as well as a number of her songs. During her Las Vegas performance she wore a dress made to replicate a voting ballot, with Obama’s box filled in.[307] On Twitter, she encouraged her followers to vote for Obama.[308]

In August 2013, Perry voiced criticism of Tony Abbott, then-leader of conservative Liberal Party of Australia and candidate for Prime Minister of Australia, due to his opposition to gay marriage and told Abbott, “I love you as a human being but I can’t give you my vote.”[309] In April 2014, she publicly supported Marianne Williamson in her campaign for California’s 33rd congressional district by attending a political press event.[310] She endorsed Kamala Harris in the United States Senate election in California, and organized a fundraiser for Harris at her home in Los Angeles in November 2016.[311] Perry also publicly endorsed former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton for president in 2016.[312][313]She performed alongside Elton John at a fundraising concert for Clinton in New York City in March 2016.[314] Perry also spoke and performed at the 2016 Democratic National Convention in support of Clinton.[315]

Achievements

Throughout her career, Perry has won five American Music Awards,[316] fourteen People’s Choice Awards,[317] four Guinness World Records,[74][97][165][265] a Brit Award,[65] and a Juno Award.[89] In September 2012, Billboard dubbed her the “Woman of the Year”.[130]From May 2010 to September 2011, the singer spent a record-breaking total of 69 consecutive weeks in the top ten of the Billboard Hot 100.[98][318] Teenage Dream became the first album by a female artist to produce five number-one Billboard Hot 100 singles, and the second album overall after Michael Jackson’s Bad.[95] In the United States, she has accumulated a total of nine number-one singles on the Billboard Hot 100, her most recent being “Dark Horse”,[153] and holds the record for having 18 consecutive number-one songs on the Dance Club Songs chart.[319] Billboard also named her the 15th most successful dance club artist of all time.[320] The magazine additionally ranked her 4th on its “Greatest of All Time Pop Songs Artists” list,[321] included Teenage Dream and Prism among its “Greatest of All Time Billboard 200 Albums by Women” list,[322] and ranked “Dark Horse” at number 100 on its “Greatest of All Time Hot 100 Songs”[323] as well as one of its “Greatest of All Time Hot 100 Songs by Women” along with “E.T.”, “Firework”, and “California Gurls”.[324] In June 2015, her music video for “Dark Horse” became the first video by a female artist to reach 1 billion views on Vevo.[325][326] The following month, her music video for “Roar” reached 1 billion views on Vevo, making her the first artist to have multiple videos with 1 billion views.[327]

Perry was declared the Top Global Female Recording Artist of 2013 by the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI).[166] According to Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA), she is the third best-selling digital singles artist in the United States, with certified sales of 91.5 million digital singles including on-demand streaming.[328] She also became the first artist to have three songs receive Diamond certifications from the RIAA with “Dark Horse”, “Firework”, and “Roar”.[329] All three of them and “E.T.”, “California Gurls”, and “Hot n Cold” have each sold over 5 million digital copies.[330] Throughout her career, Perry has sold 100 million records globally,[331][332] and is one of the best-selling music artists of all time.[333]

Discography

Filmography

Tours

Headlining

Co-headlining

  • Strangely Normal Tour (with Phil Joel) (2001)

See also

References

Footnotes

  1. Jump up^ Perry 2012, 05:23.
  2. Jump up to:a b Friedlander 2012, p. 15
  3. Jump up to:a b c d Graff, Gary (February 21, 2009). “Interview: Katy Perry – Hot N Bold”The ScotsmanArchived from the original on March 7, 2009. Retrieved February 28, 2009.
  4. Jump up^ Cowlin 2014, pp. 11; 51
  5. Jump up^ Robinson, Lisa (May 3, 2011). “Katy Perry’s Grand Tour”Vanity Fair. Archived from the original on October 25, 2014. Retrieved January 23, 2014.
  6. Jump up^ Martins, Chris (September 4, 2012). “7 Questions With David Hudson: His Movement, The Music & Advice From Big Sister Katy Perry”SpinArchived from the original on May 2, 2014. Retrieved April 30, 2014.
  7. Jump up^ Friedlander 2012, p. 7
  8. Jump up^ Masley, Ed (January 9, 2015). “Katy Perry talks Super Bowl, Scottsdale childhood”The Arizona Republic. Retrieved January 9, 2015.
  9. Jump up to:a b c Wallace, Amy (January 19, 2014). “Katy Perry’s GQ Cover Story”GQArchived from the original on February 7, 2014. Retrieved February 6, 2014.
  10. Jump up^ Grigoriadis, Vanessa (August 19, 2010). “Sex, God & Katy Perry”Rolling StoneArchived from the original on April 8, 2014. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
  11. Jump up^ Hudson 2012, p. 27
  12. Jump up to:a b Montgomery, James (June 24, 2008). “Katy Perry Dishes on Her ‘Long And Winding Road’ From Singing Gospel To Kissing Girls”MTV NewsArchived from the original on May 2, 2014. Retrieved February 15, 2009.
  13. Jump up^ “Katy Perry Discusses Evangelical Childhood, Term ‘Deviled Eggs’ Banned from House”Billboard. May 4, 2011. Archived from the original on March 22, 2014. Retrieved February 6, 2014.
  14. Jump up to:a b Hoffman, Claire (December 9, 2013). “Katy Conquers All”Marie ClaireArchived from the original on December 12, 2013. Retrieved December 10, 2013.
  15. Jump up^ Friedlander 2012, p. 8
  16. Jump up^ Hudson 2012, p. 41
  17. Jump up^ Friedlander 2012, p. 18
  18. Jump up^ Hudson 2012, p. 25
  19. Jump up^ Summers 2012, p. 37
  20. Jump up^ Spencer, Amy (January 6, 2010). “Katy Perry (she kisses boys, too!)”GlamourArchived from the original on August 11, 2014. Retrieved August 9, 2014.
  21. Jump up to:a b Hudson, Kathryn (August 29, 2013). “Katy Perry: Elle Canada Interview”ElleArchived from the original on February 23, 2014. Retrieved February 6, 2014.
  22. Jump up^ Hudson 2012, p. 37
  23. Jump up^ Erlewine, Stephen Thomas“Katy Hudson – Katy Hudson”AllMusicArchived from the original on December 26, 2013. Retrieved December 27, 2013.
  24. Jump up^ Monroe, Blaire (September 17, 2015). “Remember When Katy Perry Was a Christian Music Artist?”ComplexArchived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved February 19, 2016.
  25. Jump up^ “Katy’s tour info”. katyhudson.com. Archived from the original on August 16, 2001.
  26. Jump up^ Summers 2012, pp. 10–11
  27. Jump up^ Price, Deborah Evans (December 1, 2001). “Doors close in Pamplin’s beleaguered music division”Billboard. Retrieved August 6, 2014.
  28. Jump up^ Perry 2012, 21:11.
  29. Jump up to:a b c Hirschberg, Lynn (October 22, 2013). “Katy Perry”W. Archived from the original on October 25, 2013. Retrieved November 1, 2013.
  30. Jump up^ Perry 2012, 38:33.
  31. Jump up^ Conniff, Tamara (December 25, 2004). “I’ve Stopped Asking for Permission . I’d Rather Ask for Forgiveness”Billboard. Retrieved April 25, 2015.
  32. Jump up^ Blumenrath, Jan (October 18, 2010). “Interview with Chris Anokute”HitQuartersArchived from the original on April 17, 2015. Retrieved April 25, 2015.
  33. Jump up^ “Katy Perry Cover Story”Billboard. July 3, 2010. Retrieved April 25, 2015.
  34. Jump up^ Hochman, Steve (February 15, 2004). “Making a production of it”Los Angeles TimesArchived from the original on June 10, 2015. Retrieved April 25, 2015.
  35. Jump up^ Summers 2012, pp. 11–12
  36. Jump up to:a b Summers 2012, p. 11
  37. Jump up^ “Mick Jagger says he never hit on 18-year-old Katy Perry”USA Today. October 31, 2013. Archived from the original on November 1, 2013. Retrieved October 31, 2013.
  38. Jump up to:a b Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. “Katy Perry”. AllMusic. Archived from the original on November 4, 2015. Retrieved February 10, 2016.
  39. Jump up^ Music video guest appearances:
  40. Jump up^ “Correction to the interview with Chris Anokute”. HitQuarters. January 21, 2011. Archived from the original on July 13, 2014. Retrieved April 29, 2014.
  41. Jump up^ Mervis, Scott (July 21, 2014). “Katy Perry’s star keeps rising”Pittsburgh Post-GazetteArchived from the original on July 23, 2014. Retrieved July 31, 2014.
  42. Jump up^ Friedlander 2012, pp. 58; 61
  43. Jump up to:a b “Interview With Chris Anokute”. HitQuarters. October 18, 2010. Archived from the original on July 13, 2014. Retrieved April 29, 2014.
  44. Jump up^ Summers 2012, pp. 38–39
  45. Jump up^ Friedlander 2012, p. 61
  46. Jump up^ Summers 2012, p. 61
  47. Jump up^ Summers 2012, p. 99
  48. Jump up^ “I Kissed a Girl”Rolling Stone. July 30, 2014. Archivedfrom the original on November 8, 2014. Retrieved October 24,2014.
  49. Jump up^ Cohen, Jonathan (August 14, 2008). “Rihanna Topples Katy Perry on Hot 100”BillboardArchived from the original on July 31, 2013. Retrieved March 15, 2014.
  50. Jump up^ Vena, Jocelyn (August 20, 2008). “Katy Perry Responds To Rumors of Parents’ Criticism: ‘They Love And Support Me'”. MTV News. Archived from the original on December 13, 2013. Retrieved April 29, 2014.
  51. Jump up^ One of the Boys by Katy Perry”Metacritic. Archived from the original on November 14, 2012. Retrieved March 6, 2009.
  52. Jump up^ “Katy Perry – Chart history: Billboard 200”BillboardArchived from the original on July 13, 2014. Retrieved March 2, 2009.
  53. Jump up^ Kaufman, Gil (August 26, 2010). “Katy Perry, Fantasia look to unseat Eminem on charts”. MTV News. Archived from the original on March 30, 2016. Retrieved February 28, 2016.
  54. Jump up^ “Hot n Cold”Rolling Stone. July 30, 2014. Archived from the original on November 8, 2014. Retrieved October 24, 2014.
  55. Jump up to:a b c d e f “Katy Perry – Chart history: The Hot 100”BillboardArchived from the original on June 29, 2014. Retrieved June 26, 2014.
  56. Jump up^ “Hot n Cold (Single)”. Musicline. Archived from the original on July 14, 2014. Retrieved June 26, 2014.
  57. Jump up to:a b c d “Katy Perry – Chart history: Billboard Canadian Hot 100”BillboardArchived from the original on June 29, 2014. Retrieved June 26, 2014.
  58. Jump up^ “Nederlandse Top 40 – week 01, 2009”Dutch Top 40Archived from the original on July 28, 2014. Retrieved July 27,2014.
  59. Jump up^ “Katy Perry — Hot N Cold”Ö3 Austria Top 40Archivedfrom the original on August 30, 2013. Retrieved July 27, 2014.
  60. Jump up^ “Thinking of You”Rolling Stone. July 30, 2014. Archivedfrom the original on July 7, 2015. Retrieved April 5, 2017.
  61. Jump up^ “Waking Up in Vegas”Rolling Stone. July 30, 2014. Archived from the original on October 22, 2014. Retrieved October 21, 2014.
  62. Jump up^ Kaufman, Gil (January 27, 2009). “The Matrix Drop Long-Lost Album Featuring Katy Perry”. MTV News. Archived from the original on October 27, 2015. Retrieved April 29, 2014.
  63. Jump up^ “Katy Perry on Warped 2008: Mosh Pits, Injuries and Andrew WK”Rolling Stone. August 25, 2008. Archived from the original on May 1, 2014. Retrieved April 3, 2014.
  64. Jump up^ Kaufman, Gil (November 7, 2008). “Americans Katy Perry, Britney Spears, Kanye West, 30 Seconds To Mars Dominate 2008 MTV EMAs”. MTV News. Archived from the original on December 13, 2013. Retrieved September 13, 2015.
  65. Jump up to:a b “Brit Awards 2009: Full list of winners”The Daily Telegraph. February 18, 2009. Archived from the original on July 12, 2015. Retrieved November 3, 2015.
  66. Jump up to:a b Hudson 2012, p. 83
  67. Jump up^ Ching, Albert (August 5, 2009). “Last Night: No Doubt, Katy Perry, the Sounds at Verizon Wireless Amphitheater”OC WeeklyArchived from the original on May 21, 2014. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
  68. Jump up^ “MTV EMAs Host Katy Perry Brings ‘Cabaret’ To Berlin”. MTV. October 1, 2009. Archived from the original on November 17, 2015. Retrieved September 13, 2015.
  69. Jump up^ MTV Unplugged (Compact Disc). Katy Perry. Capitol Records. 2009.
  70. Jump up^ Montgomery, James (October 12, 2009). “Katy Perry’s MTV Unplugged Album Will Feature Two New Songs”. MTV News. Archived from the original on May 2, 2014. Retrieved April 28,2014.
  71. Jump up^ “Starstrukk (feat. Katy Perry)”. iTunes Store. September 14, 2009. Archived from the original on September 8, 2014. Retrieved July 23, 2014.
  72. Jump up^ “If We Ever Meet Again”Rolling Stone. July 30, 2014. Archived from the original on November 15, 2014. Retrieved November 2, 2014.
  73. Jump up^ “Video: Timbaland f/ Katy Perry – ‘If We Ever Meet Again'”Rap-Up. January 18, 2010. Archived from the original on January 22, 2010. Retrieved August 2, 2010.
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  75. Jump up^ “Katy Perry And Travis Split”. MTV News. January 5, 2009. Archived from the original on February 3, 2014. Retrieved April 29, 2014.
  76. Jump up^ Vena, Jocelyn (June 4, 2010). “Katy Perry Explains Why She Was Cut From ‘Get Him to the Greek'”. MTV News. Archived from the original on May 2, 2014. Retrieved February 18, 2012.
  77. Jump up^ Ziegbe, Mawuse (September 4, 2010). “Katy Perry, Russell Brand’s Love Story Began at the VMAs”. MTV News. Archived from the original on May 2, 2014. Retrieved November 9, 2010.
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  79. Jump up^ Barrett, Annie (January 27, 2010). “‘American Idol’: The Kara vs. Katy Lifetime movie”Entertainment WeeklyArchivedfrom the original on July 14, 2014. Retrieved April 29, 2014.
  80. Jump up^ Montgomery, James (May 7, 2010). “Katy Perry Debuts New Single ‘California Gurls'”. MTV News. Archived from the original on September 12, 2014. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
  81. Jump up^ Details on “California Gurls”:
  82. Jump up^ “Katy Perry Hits Dublin For X Factor Auditions”. MTV News. June 28, 2010. Archived from the original on October 17, 2013. Retrieved June 28, 2010.
  83. Jump up^ Greenblatt, Leah (July 22, 2010). “Katy Perry’s new single ‘Teenage Dream’ hits the web”Entertainment WeeklyArchived from the original on November 9, 2014. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
  84. Jump up^ Pietroluongo, Silvio (September 8, 2010). “Katy Perry’s ‘Teenage Dream’ Dethrones Eminem on Hot 100”BillboardArchived from the original on September 8, 2014. Retrieved July 31, 2014.
  85. Jump up^ Vena, Jocelyn (May 11, 2010). “Katy Perry To Release Teenage Dream On August 24”. MTV News. Archived from the original on September 11, 2014. Retrieved September 10,2014.
  86. Jump up^ Caulfield, Keith (October 23, 2013). “Katy Perry’s ‘Prism’ Set for No. 1 Debut on Billboard 200 Chart”BillboardArchivedfrom the original on February 20, 2014. Retrieved March 15,2014.
  87. Jump up^ Teenage Dream by Katy Perry”. Metacritic. Archivedfrom the original on November 2, 2013. Retrieved March 15,2014.
  88. Jump up^ Michaels, Sean (July 30, 2013). “Katy Perry announces new album, Prism, on side of golden lorry”The GuardianArchived from the original on August 19, 2016. Retrieved June 20, 2016.
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  90. Jump up^ Semigran, Aly (February 8, 2011). “Glee Sets ‘Firework’ Apart From ‘Silly Love Songs'”. MTV News. Archived from the original on December 5, 2014. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
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  92. Jump up^ Wete, Brad (February 16, 2011). “Kanye West abducts Katy Perry on singer’s new single, ‘E.T'”Entertainment WeeklyArchived from the original on October 14, 2014. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
  93. Jump up^ Trust, Gary (March 30, 2011). “Katy Perry’s ‘E.T.’ Rockets To No. 1 on Hot 100”BillboardArchived from the original on May 8, 2013. Retrieved March 30, 2011.
  94. Jump up^ “FMQB: Radio Industry News, Music Industry Updates, Nielsen Ratings, Music News and more!”FMQB. June 6, 2011. Archived from the original on July 5, 2011. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
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  96. Jump up^ Nordyke, Kimberly (November 20, 2011). “AMAs 2011: Katy Perry Surprised With Special Achievement Award”The Hollywood ReporterArchived from the original on February 17, 2016. Retrieved November 15, 2015.
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  101. Jump up^ Loynes, Anna. “The Nielsen Company & Billboard’s 2011 Music Industry Report”Business WireArchived from the original on January 6, 2012. Retrieved January 5, 2012.
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  103. Jump up^ Trust, Gary (February 22, 2012). “Katy Perry’s ‘Part of Me’ Debuts Atop Hot 100”Billboard. Retrieved November 12,2017.
  104. Jump up^ “Teenage Dream: The Complete Confection”. iTunes Store. March 23, 2012. Archived from the original on July 17, 2014. Retrieved July 31, 2014.
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  109. Jump up^ Vena, Jocelyn (November 7, 2011). “Justin Bieber Parties With Selena Gomez, LMFAO After MTV EMA”. MTV News. Archived from the original on January 25, 2016. Retrieved September 13, 2015.
  110. Jump up^ “Rock in Rio 2011: A hora e a vez do pop”Jornal da Cidade de Bauru (in Portuguese). September 26, 2011. Archived from the original on October 11, 2011. Retrieved November 5, 2011.
  111. Jump up^ Getler, Michael (September 24, 2010). “Was This Show a Must or a Bust(ier)?”PBSArchived from the original on May 2, 2015. Retrieved November 27, 2014.
  112. Jump up^ “Katy Perry mocks Sesame Street ban”Capital FMArchived from the original on April 13, 2014. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
  113. Jump up^ Kaufman, Gil (September 27, 2010). “Katy Perry to appear on ‘The Simpsons’ in December”. MTV News. Archived from the original on November 7, 2012. Retrieved August 19, 2011.
  114. Jump up^ Snierson, Dan (September 25, 2010). “Katy Perry to guest star on ‘The Simpsons’! Here’s your exclusive first look”Entertainment WeeklyArchived from the original on December 5, 2014. Retrieved November 27, 2014.
  115. Jump up^ Tucker, Ken (February 7, 2011). “How I Met Your Mother: ‘Oh Honey'”Entertainment WeeklyArchived from the original on August 15, 2011. Retrieved August 27, 2011.
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  117. Jump up^ “The Smurfs (2011)”Box Office MojoArchived from the original on November 4, 2011. Retrieved November 6, 2011.
  118. Jump up^ “The Smurfs”Rotten TomatoesArchived from the original on January 11, 2014. Retrieved January 16, 2014.
  119. Jump up^ Rutherford, Keith (December 11, 2011). “Katy Perry Hosts ‘SNL’: The Hits & Misses, Including a Florence Welch Spoof”BillboardArchived from the original on August 21, 2013. Retrieved August 8, 2013.
  120. Jump up^ Moraski, Lauren (February 22, 2012). “Katy Perry to portray a prison attendant on ‘Raising Hope'”CBS NewsArchivedfrom the original on August 13, 2014. Retrieved February 25,2014.
  121. Jump up^ Gleiberman, Owen (August 14, 2012). “Katy Perry: Part Of Me”Entertainment WeeklyArchived from the original on August 26, 2015. Retrieved September 13, 2015.
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  124. Jump up^ “Katy Perry: Part of Me”. Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on August 14, 2012. Retrieved August 16, 2012.
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  126. Jump up^ Moraski, Lauren (February 1, 2012). “Katy Perry to perform at Grammy Awards”. CBS News. Archived from the original on August 26, 2014. Retrieved August 22, 2014.
  127. Jump up^ Sweeney, Mark (January 17, 2012). “Katy Perry becomes a Sim”The GuardianArchived from the original on July 14, 2014. Retrieved January 22, 2012.
  128. Jump up^ “The Sims 3 Katy Perry’s Sweet Treats”Electronic Arts. Archived from the original on January 6, 2015. Retrieved April 3, 2014.
  129. Jump up^ Donnelly, Matt (July 25, 2012). “First Look: Katy Perry joins Popchips as its face, an investor”Los Angeles TimesArchived from the original on August 28, 2012. Retrieved July 25, 2012.
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  131. Jump up^ Ganguly, Prithwish (October 26, 2010). “Katy affirms Brand loyalty”The Times of IndiaArchived from the original on October 28, 2010. Retrieved November 9, 2010.
  132. Jump up^ Freydkin, Donna (December 30, 2011). “Russell Brand, Katy Perry call it quits”USA TodayArchived from the original on August 8, 2014. Retrieved August 7, 2014.
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  137. Jump up^ Heller, Jill (September 30, 2013). “Katy Perry Contemplated Suicide After Divorcing Russell Brand, Says Split Was A ‘Dark Time'”International Business TimesArchived from the original on August 12, 2014. Retrieved August 7, 2014.
  138. Jump up^ “Katy Perry says Russell Brand texted his desire to divorce”United Press International. June 18, 2013. Archived from the original on August 26, 2014. Retrieved August 21, 2014.
  139. Jump up^ “John Mayer Dedicates Song to Katy Perry During Tour Opener”Billboard. July 8, 2013. Archived from the original on July 12, 2013. Retrieved July 11, 2013.
  140. Jump up^ “Katy Perry Won’t Rush New Album: “I Know Exactly The Record I Want To Make Next””. Capital FM. December 1, 2012. Archived from the original on April 22, 2014. Retrieved May 19, 2014.
  141. Jump up^ “Katy Perry inspired by Madonna”. MTV News. June 29, 2012. Archived from the original on October 20, 2013. Retrieved April 29, 2014.
  142. Jump up^ Garibaldi, Christina (August 27, 2013). “Katy Perry ‘Lets the Light In’ On Prism. MTV News. Archived from the original on August 28, 2013. Retrieved August 28, 2013.
  143. Jump up^ Caulfield, Keith (August 10, 2013). “Katy Perry’s ‘Roar’ Arrives Early: Listen”BillboardArchived from the original on June 20, 2014. Retrieved May 19, 2014.
  144. Jump up^ Wickman, Kase (August 26, 2013). “Katy Perry Makes Brooklyn ‘Roar’ With Epic VMA Finale”. MTV News. Archived from the original on May 20, 2014. Retrieved May 19, 2014.
  145. Jump up^ Trust, Gary (September 4, 2013). “Katy Perry Dethrones Robin Thicke Atop Hot 100”BillboardArchived from the original on September 6, 2013. Retrieved September 4, 2013.
  146. Jump up^ Benjamin, Jeff (October 16, 2013). “Katy Perry Wails on New Single “Unconditionally””FuseArchived from the original on October 17, 2013. Retrieved October 16, 2013.
  147. Jump up^ Trust, Gary (February 17, 2014). “Ask Billboard: Katy Perry Regains No. 1 Momentum”BillboardArchived from the original on October 11, 2014. Retrieved September 27, 2014.
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  149. Jump up^ Prism by Katy Perry”. Metacritic. Archived from the original on December 9, 2013. Retrieved November 15, 2013.
  150. Jump up^ Caulfield, Keith. “Katy Perry’s ‘PRISM’ Shines at No. 1 on Billboard 200”BillboardArchived from the original on November 1, 2013. Retrieved November 9, 2013.
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  152. Jump up^ “Dark Horse (feat. Juicy J)”Rolling Stone. July 30, 2014. Archived from the original on October 22, 2014. Retrieved October 21, 2014.
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  154. Jump up^ Wass, Mike (June 7, 2017). “Should Have Been Bigger: Katy Perry’s “Birthday””Idolator. Retrieved October 27, 2017.
  155. Jump up^ Strecker, Erin (July 24, 2014). “Katy Perry Releases Lyric Video For New Single ‘This Is How We Do'”BillboardArchived from the original on July 27, 2014. Retrieved July 24,2014.
  156. Jump up^ Lipshutz, Jason (February 26, 2014). “Katy Perry & John Mayer Break Up: Report”BillboardArchived from the original on March 2, 2014. Retrieved February 27, 2014.
  157. Jump up^ Malkin, Marc (March 31, 2014). “Katy Perry After John Mayer: New Hair, New Tour, New Very Expensive Hobby”. E!. Archived from the original on March 31, 2014. Retrieved March 31, 2014.
  158. Jump up^ “Who You Love” with John Mayer:
  159. Jump up^ The tour earned $153.3 million on 1,407,972 tickets in 2014 and $51 million on 576,531 tickets in 2015.
  160. Jump up^ Hampp, Andrew (November 20, 2014). “One Direction, Lionel Richie & Katy Perry Win at Billboard Touring Awards”Archived from the original on November 15, 2015. Retrieved June 12, 2015.
  161. Jump up^ Leopold, Todd (September 30, 2015). “Katy Perry kissed by a girl – too much”. CNN. Archived from the original on October 27, 2015. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
  162. Jump up^ “Katy Perry confirmed to perform at Super Bowl halftime show”. CBS News. November 23, 2014. Archived from the original on November 24, 2014. Retrieved November 24, 2014.
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  164. Jump up^ Dresdale, Andrea (February 7, 2016). “Super Bowl 2016: A History of Halftime Performances”. ABC News. Retrieved February 7, 2017.
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  167. Jump up^ “RIAA Crowns Katy Perry Top Certified Digital Artist Ever”Recording Industry Association of America. June 26, 2014. Archived from the original on July 13, 2016. Retrieved June 26, 2014.
  168. Jump up^ “Katy Perry Becomes the RIAA’s All-Time Top Digital Artist”Billboard. June 26, 2014. Archived from the original on June 28, 2014. Retrieved June 26, 2014.
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  170. Jump up^ “Katy Perry Added to US National Portrait Gallery”Billboard. May 21, 2014. Archived from the original on May 25, 2014. Retrieved May 29, 2014.
  171. Jump up^ Mallenbaum, Carly (November 23, 2015). “Katy Perry debuts new ‘Holiday’ song in H&M commercial”USA TodayArchived from the original on November 24, 2015. Retrieved November 23, 2015.
  172. Jump up^ “World Premiere: H&M Holiday Featuring Katy Perry”(Press release). H&M. November 9, 2015. Archived from the original on November 27, 2016. Retrieved November 23, 2015.
  173. Jump up^ Lindner, Emilee (June 17, 2014). “Katy Perry Starts Her Own Record Label and Reveals First Signee”. MTV News. Archived from the original on June 19, 2014. Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  174. Jump up^ Kaufman, Gil (July 14, 2017). “Katy Perry Really Wants You to Get ‘Together’ with Her Latest Signing, CYN”Billboard. Retrieved July 14, 2017.
  175. Jump up^ “Katy Perry taped background vocals for ‘Ooh La La'”. United Press International. July 29, 2013. Archived from the original on August 8, 2013. Retrieved August 8, 2013.
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  178. Jump up^ “Katy Perry Makes Hilarious Cameo on Kroll Show”Maxim. March 26, 2014. Archived from the original on August 12, 2014. Retrieved July 25, 2014.
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  180. Jump up^ “Katy Perry to Guest Curate Madonna’s Art for Freedom Project”Billboard. January 7, 2014. Archived from the original on April 22, 2014. Retrieved May 26, 2014.
  181. Jump up^ Linder, Emilee (June 17, 2015). “Madonna’s New Video: Here’s Every Blink-And-You-Miss-It Celeb Cameo”. MTV News. Archived from the original on June 17, 2015. Retrieved June 17, 2015.
  182. Jump up^ Kinosian, Janet (August 12, 2015). “Katy Perry hopes her Mad Potion fragrance will help you time-travel”Los Angeles TimesArchived from the original on February 20, 2016. Retrieved February 19, 2016.
  183. Jump up^ Hipes, Patrick (September 11, 2015). “‘Katy Perry: Making Of The Pepsi Super Bowl Halftime Show’ Trailer: What 118.5 Million Viewers Didn’t See”Deadline.comArchived from the original on September 12, 2015. Retrieved September 12,2015.
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  185. Jump up^ Bryant, Jacob (December 15, 2015). “Glu Mobile’s ‘Katy Perry Pop’ Hopes to Rival Success of ‘Kim Kardashian: Hollywood'”VarietyArchived from the original on December 25, 2015. Retrieved January 4, 2016.
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  187. Jump up^ “Grammys 2017: Katy Perry On The Meaning Behind ‘Chained To The Rhythm'”Access Hollywood. February 12, 2017. Archived from the original on May 21, 2017. Retrieved May 5, 2017.
  188. Jump up^ “NBC Olympics Features New Katy Perry Anthem “Rise””NBC Sports. July 14, 2016. Archived from the original on July 18, 2016. Retrieved July 14, 2016.
  189. Jump up^ Ryan, Gavin (July 25, 2016). “Australian Singles: Katy Perry ‘Rise’ Has A Go At No 1”. Noise11.com. Archived from the original on July 25, 2016. Retrieved July 25, 2016.
  190. Jump up^ Carroll, Sarah (August 18, 2016). “Katy Perry Is ‘Taking Chances’ & ‘Not Rushing’ Her New Music”97.1 AMP RadioArchived from the original on August 19, 2016. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
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  193. Jump up^ Aiello, McKenna; Vulpo, Mike (March 5, 2017). “Katy Perry Opens 2017 iHeartRadio Music Awards With a Bunch of Kids and a Dancing Hamster”. E!. Archived from the original on March 6, 2017. Retrieved March 6, 2017.
  194. Jump up^ “Archívum – Slágerlisták – MAHASZ” (in Hungarian). Rádiós Top 40 játszási lista. April 7, 2017. Archived from the original on April 26, 2017. Retrieved April 27, 2017.
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  203. Jump up^ Roth, Madeline (August 17, 2017). “Katy Perry Has Good News And Bad News About Her Witness Tour”. MTV News. Retrieved August 18, 2017.
  204. Jump up^ Findlay, Mitch (June 14, 2017). “Calvin Harris Announces Single With Big Sean, Pharrell, & Katy Perry”HotNewHipHop. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
  205. Jump up^ White, Jack (August 11, 2017). “Calvin Harris dethrones Despacito to claim his eighth Number 1 single”Official Charts Company. Retrieved August 11, 2017.
  206. Jump up^ Doty, Meriah. “From Amanpour to Zane: All the Celebrity Cameos in ‘Zoolander 2’ (Spoilers!)”Yahoo! MoviesArchived from the original on February 23, 2016. Retrieved February 13, 2016.
  207. Jump up^ Ryan, Patrick (February 10, 2016). “Ben Stiller, Owen Wilson put ‘Zoolander’ back in fashion”USA TodayArchived from the original on February 13, 2016. Retrieved February 13, 2016.
  208. Jump up^ Mackenzie, Macaela (February 13, 2017). “Katy Perry Just Named a Shoe After Hillary Clinton”Allure. Retrieved November 19, 2017.
  209. Jump up^ Roth, Madeline (July 27, 2017). “Katy Perry Is Ready To Be Your ‘Moonwoman’ As Host Of The 2017 VMAs”. MTV News. Retrieved July 27, 2017.
  210. Jump up^ O’Connell, Michael (August 3, 2017). “‘American Idol’ Producer Talks Revival Salaries, New ABC Home”The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved August 23, 2017.
  211. Jump up^ Gelman, Vlada (September 29, 2017). “American Idol Taps Lionel Richie as Third Judge for ABC Revival”. Yahoo! Music. Retrieved October 25, 2017.
  212. Jump up^ “Katy Perry on the 180 That Saved Her Career”NPR. October 26, 2013. Archived from the original on February 18, 2014. Retrieved February 3, 2014.
  213. Jump up^ Schneider, Marc (May 12, 2012). “Katy Perry Wants a ‘Fucking Vacation’ After Next Single”BillboardArchivedfrom the original on July 13, 2014. Retrieved February 3, 2014.
  214. Jump up^ “Freddie Mercury inspired Katy Perry to ‘Kiss a Girl'”NME. September 26, 2008. Archived from the original on January 6, 2014. Retrieved February 3, 2014.
  215. Jump up^ “Katy Perry, The Things They Say”. Contactmusic.com. Archived from the original on February 22, 2014. Retrieved February 3, 2014.
  216. Jump up to:a b Wiig, Kristen (March 2, 2012). “Katy Perry”InterviewArchived from the original on February 22, 2014. Retrieved February 3, 2014.
  217. Jump up to:a b c Mitchell, Gail (November 30, 2012). “Katy Perry Q&A: Billboard’s Woman of the Year 2012”BillboardArchivedfrom the original on May 8, 2013. Retrieved November 30, 2012.
  218. Jump up to:a b Michaels, Sean. “Katy Perry wants to go folk acoustic – in style of Joni Mitchell”The GuardianArchived from the original on February 23, 2014. Retrieved February 3, 2014.
  219. Jump up^ Dinh, James (April 6, 2012). “Katy Perry’s ‘Part of Me’ Film Inspired By Madonna”. MTV News. Archived from the original on November 9, 2013. Retrieved April 29, 2014.
  220. Jump up^ Vena, Jocelyn (June 29, 2012). “Katy Perry Inspired By Madonna For ‘Darker’ Next Album”. MTV News. Archivedfrom the original on April 10, 2016. Retrieved March 25, 2016.
  221. Jump up^ Newman, Melinda (April 22, 2010). “Katy Perry dishes details on new dance-fueled album”HitFixArchived from the original on April 9, 2016. Retrieved March 30, 2016.
  222. Jump up^ Ryan, Chris (March 30, 2010). “What Will Katy Perry’s New Album Sound Like? Check Out 5 Video Clues”. MTV News. Archived from the original on April 10, 2016. Retrieved March 26, 2016.
  223. Jump up^ Vena, Jocelyn (September 22, 2009). “Katy Perry wants to make new music her fans can ‘roller-stake’ to”. MTV News. Archived from the original on March 6, 2016. Retrieved March 25, 2016.
  224. Jump up^ Garland, Emma (January 10, 2017). “A Deep Dive into Katy Perry’s 2007 Myspace Page”Noisey. Vice Media. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017. Retrieved January 20, 2017.
  225. Jump up^ “Katy Perry praises ‘really great’ Pink – Music News”Digital Spy. August 15, 2009. Archived from the original on November 4, 2013. Retrieved December 5, 2013.
  226. Jump up^ Friedlander 2012, p. 123
  227. Jump up^ “Katy Perry’s ‘California Dreams’ Tour: What the Critics Are Saying”The Hollywood Reporter. June 19, 2011. Archivedfrom the original on September 8, 2014. Retrieved August 6,2014.
  228. Jump up^ Rutherford, Kevin (October 22, 2013). “Katy Perry Reveals ‘Prism’ Influences, Adds Stripped-Down Performances at Album Release Event”BillboardArchived from the original on October 27, 2013. Retrieved December 9, 2013.
  229. Jump up^ Woods, Vicki (June 2013). “Katy Perry’s First Vogue Cover”Vogue. Archived from the original on July 26, 2013. Retrieved July 26, 2013.
  230. Jump up^ Musical genres of Katy Hudson and One of the Boys:
  231. Jump up to:a b Sheffield, Rob (August 23, 2010). “Teenage Dream”Rolling StoneArchived from the original on January 25, 2014. Retrieved February 5, 2014.
  232. Jump up^ Trust, Gary (September 9, 2013). “Katy Perry’s Future ‘Prism’ Hits: Industry Picks”BillboardArchived from the original on September 11, 2013. Retrieved September 19, 2013.
  233. Jump up^ Heller, Corinne (May 20, 2017). “Katy Perry Reveals Meaning Behind “Swish Swish” Amid Rumors Song Is About Taylor Swift”. E!. Retrieved July 25, 2017.
  234. Jump up^ “Katy Perry’s ‘Witness’ Fails as ‘Purposeful Pop,’ But Succeeds as Future Pop”Billboard. June 13, 2017. Retrieved June 16, 2017.
  235. Jump up^ Reed, James (October 20, 2013). “Perry shows many colors on ‘Prism'”The Boston GlobeArchived from the original on January 25, 2014. Retrieved February 7, 2014.
  236. Jump up^ Wallace, Amy (January 19, 2014). “Katy Perry’s GQ Profile Outtakes: Going Back to School, Dating Musicians, and Plastic Surgery”GQArchived from the original on February 24, 2014. Retrieved February 1, 2014.
  237. Jump up^ Kot, Greg (October 20, 2013). “Katy Perry album review; Prism reviewed”Chicago TribuneArchived from the original on January 25, 2014. Retrieved February 5, 2014.
  238. Jump up^ Pareles, Jon; Ratliff, Ben; Carmanica, Jon; Chinen, Nate (September 6, 2013). “Fall Pop Music Preview: An Abundance of Rhythms and Styles”The New York TimesArchivedfrom the original on August 11, 2014. Retrieved August 7, 2014.
  239. Jump up^ Roberts, Randall (October 22, 2013). “Review: Hits pack Katy Perry’s ‘Prism'”Los Angeles TimesArchived from the original on January 25, 2014. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
  240. Jump up^ Vena, Jocelyn. “Selena Gomez ‘Had To Fight’ To Get Katy Perry Song ‘Rock God'”. MTV News. Archived from the original on February 3, 2014. Retrieved September 22, 2010.
  241. Jump up^ When the Sun Goes Down (Media notes). Selena Gomez & the SceneHollywood Records. 2011.
  242. Jump up^ Jessie James (Media notes). Jessie JamesMercury Records/The Island Def Jam Music Group. 2009.
  243. Jump up^ All I Ever Wanted (Media notes). Kelly ClarksonRCA Records/19 Recordings. 2009.
  244. Jump up^ Castellanos, Melissa (September 26, 2008). “Second Cup Cafe: Lesley Roy”. CBS News. Archived from the original on September 8, 2014. Retrieved May 24, 2014.
  245. Jump up^ Garibaldi, Christina (December 4, 2013). “Britney Spears Explains How ‘Amazing’ Katy Perry Ended Up On Britney Jean”. MTV News. Archived from the original on August 26, 2014. Retrieved August 25, 2014.
  246. Jump up^ The New Classic (Media notes). Iggy Azalea. The Island Def Jam Music Group. 2014.
  247. Jump up^ The Pinkprint (Media notes). Nicki MinajUniversal Music Group. 2014.
  248. Jump up^ Grewal, Samar (October 9, 2008). “Review: Katy Perry – One of the Boys”Rolling StoneArchived from the original on March 17, 2014. Retrieved March 16, 2014.
  249. Jump up^ Mirkin, Steven (February 1, 2009). “Review: ‘Katy Perry'”VarietyArchived from the original on March 17, 2014. Retrieved March 16, 2014.
  250. Jump up^ Clarke, Betty (October 1, 2013). “Katy Perry – review”The GuardianArchived from the original on February 23, 2014. Retrieved February 5, 2014.
  251. Jump up^ Harvey, Darren (September 15, 2008). “Katy Perry – One of the Boys”musicOMHArchived from the original on January 4, 2014. Retrieved February 5, 2014.
  252. Jump up^ Miller, Alex. “NME Album Reviews – Katy Perry”NMEArchived from the original on January 16, 2014. Retrieved February 5, 2014.
  253. Jump up^ McNulty, Bernadette (October 1, 2013). “Katy Perry, iTunes Festival, Roundhouse, review”The Daily TelegraphArchived from the original on March 22, 2014. Retrieved February 5, 2014.
  254. Jump up^ George, Kat (May 24, 2014). “Does Madonna Need Katy Perry More Than Katy Perry Needs Madonna?”ViceArchived from the original on May 27, 2014. Retrieved May 29, 2014.
  255. Jump up^ “Katy Perry tops Maxim’s Hot 100 list”CNN. May 10, 2010. Archived from the original on October 22, 2014. Retrieved October 21, 2014.
  256. Jump up^ “The Hottest Women of 2013”Men’s Health. January 2013. Archived from the original on June 22, 2017. Retrieved April 29, 2014.
  257. Jump up to:a b Apodaca, Rose. “Katy Perry’s Interview – Quotes from Katy Perry”Harper’s BazaarArchived from the original on January 10, 2014. Retrieved February 6, 2014.
  258. Jump up^ Larson, John (September 14, 2010). “Katy Perry // “Teenage Dream””Tacoma Weekly. Archived from the original on November 9, 2013. Retrieved June 19, 2013.
  259. Jump up^ Menyes, Carolyn (July 12, 2012). “Katy Perry Asked to Ditch Hazardous Peppermint Bra”BillboardArchived from the original on May 29, 2013. Retrieved June 19, 2013.
  260. Jump up^ “Fashion Fireworks: Katy Perry’s Best Performance Looks”Vogue. Archived from the original on December 21, 2013. Retrieved February 6, 2014.
  261. Jump up^ Lyons Powell, Hannah. “Katy Perry’s Changing Style and Fashion”GlamourArchived from the original on February 19, 2014. Retrieved February 6, 2014.
  262. Jump up^ “Find Out What Influences Katy Perry’s Cute Style!”Seventeen. February 5, 2009. Archived from the original on September 8, 2009. Retrieved April 29, 2014.
  263. Jump up^ Young, Katy (October 1, 2013). “Katy Perry reveals her perfume preferences”The Daily TelegraphArchived from the original on October 2, 2013. Retrieved October 1, 2013.
  264. Jump up^ Hollister, Sean (November 3, 2013). “Katy Perry passes Justin Bieber as most popular person on Twitter”The VergeArchived from the original on November 4, 2013. Retrieved November 4, 2013.
  265. Jump up to:a b Grow, Kory (September 4, 2014). “Wherever They May Roam: Metallica Set Guinness World Record for Touring”Rolling StoneArchived from the original on September 5, 2014. Retrieved September 4, 2014.
  266. Jump up^ Cirisano, Tatiana (June 16, 2017). “Katy Perry Becomes First to Hit 100 Million Twitter Followers”The Hollywood ReporterArchived from the original on June 16, 2017. Retrieved June 16, 2017.
  267. Jump up^ Gundersen, Edna (October 21, 2013). “Katy Perry tells how to ‘tame the social media dragon'”USA TodayArchivedfrom the original on February 5, 2014. Retrieved February 7,2014.
  268. Jump up^ “Music Fuels the Internet”. Recording Industry Association of America. January 2, 2018. Retrieved January 2, 2018.
  269. Jump up^ “The 25 Most Influential People on the Internet”Time. June 26, 2017. Retrieved June 27, 2017.
  270. Jump up^ Greenburg, Zack O’Malley (December 14, 2011). “The Top-Earning Women In Music 2011”ForbesArchived from the original on October 27, 2015. Retrieved December 14, 2011.
  271. Jump up^ Greenburg, Zack O’Malley (December 12, 2012). “The Top-Earning Women In Music 2012”ForbesArchived from the original on December 12, 2012. Retrieved December 12, 2012.
  272. Jump up^ Greenburg, Zack O’Malley (December 11, 2013). “The Top-Earning Women In Music 2013”ForbesArchived from the original on December 15, 2013. Retrieved December 11, 2013.
  273. Jump up^ Greenburg, Zack O’Malley (November 4, 2014). “The Top-Earning Women In Music 2014”ForbesArchived from the original on November 27, 2014. Retrieved November 27, 2014.
  274. Jump up^ 2015 Forbes rankings:
  275. Jump up^ Greenburg, Zack O’Malley (June 2, 2016). “Katy Perry’s Net Worth: $125 Million In 2016”ForbesArchived from the original on June 2, 2016. Retrieved June 2, 2016.
  276. Jump up^ Greenburg, Zack O’Malley (November 2, 2016). “The World’s Highest-Paid Women In Music 2016”ForbesArchivedfrom the original on November 4, 2016. Retrieved November 4,2016.
  277. Jump up^ Greenburg, Zack O’Malley (November 20, 2017). “The World’s Highest-Paid Women In Music 2017”Forbes. Retrieved November 22, 2017.
  278. Jump up^ “Katy Perry teams up with UNICEF and visits children in Madagascar”UNICEFArchived from the original on April 9, 2013. Retrieved April 7, 2013.
  279. Jump up^ “Katy Perry is UNICEF’s newest Goodwill Ambassador”. UNICEF. December 3, 2013. Archived from the original on August 10, 2014. Retrieved April 28, 2014.
  280. Jump up^ Ryan, Reed (January 15, 2014). “Katy Perry Cues Up ‘Prismatic’ World Tour”Rolling StoneArchived from the original on March 31, 2014. Retrieved April 28, 2014.
  281. Jump up^ “Boys Hope/Girls Hope”American Broadcasting Company. Archived from the original on October 18, 2014. Retrieved April 28, 2014.
  282. Jump up^ Trakin, Roy (June 12, 2014). “Katy Perry and Staples ‘Make Roar Happen’ to Help Support Teachers”BillboardArchived from the original on June 22, 2014. Retrieved June 18, 2014.
  283. Jump up^ “UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador Katy Perry meets children facing immense challenges in Viet Nam”. UNICEF. June 1, 2016. Archived from the original on June 2, 2016. Retrieved June 2, 2016.
  284. Jump up^ “2016 UNICEF Snowflake Ball to Honor UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador Katy Perry and Philanthropist Moll Anderson”. UNICEF. June 23, 2016. Archived from the original on August 17, 2016. Retrieved June 23, 2016.
  285. Jump up^ “The Keep A Breast Foundation”Keep A Breast Foundation. Archived from the original on March 30, 2014. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
  286. Jump up^ Aguila, Justino (October 24, 2013). “Katy Perry Hosts Famous Friends, Previews Next Tour at Hollywood Bowl: Live Review”BillboardArchived from the original on June 24, 2014. Retrieved April 28, 2014.
  287. Jump up^ Vena, Jocelyn. “Katy Perry, Tokio Hotel Join H&M for Fashion Against AIDS”. MTV News. Archived from the original on May 8, 2009. Retrieved March 14, 2014.
  288. Jump up^ “EJAF’s 25th Annual Academy Awards Viewing Party: Sunday, February 26, 2017”Elton John AIDS Foundation. Retrieved January 18, 2017.
  289. Jump up^ Myers, Alexandra (February 16, 2012). “Katy Perry donates proceeds from new single to charity”Yahoo! NewsArchived from the original on July 15, 2014. Retrieved May 25,2014.
  290. Jump up^ “Katy Perry Celebrates Over $175K Raised for Charity on Her California Dreams Tour through Tickets-for-Charity” (PDF). Children’s Health Fund. December 8, 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 23, 2015. Retrieved April 28,2014.
  291. Jump up^ “Katy Perry Asks For Charity Donations To Mark Birthday”. Contactmusic.com. Channel 4. October 26, 2011. Archivedfrom the original on October 28, 2011. Retrieved November 11,2011.
  292. Jump up^ Davidson, Danica. “Sweet Treat: Katy Perry asks for Charitable Donations for her 28th Birthday”. MTV. Archivedfrom the original on July 14, 2014. Retrieved June 27, 2014.
  293. Jump up^ Daunt, Tina (March 31, 2014). “Katy Perry, Pharrell Williams Help Raise $2.4 Million for MOCA”BillboardArchivedfrom the original on April 3, 2014. Retrieved April 10, 2014.
  294. Jump up^ “One Love Manchester: What you need to know”. BBC News. June 4, 2017. Archived from the original on June 4, 2017. Retrieved June 4, 2017.
  295. Jump up^ “High profile support: Other messages”Stonewall. November 17, 2010. Archived from the original on June 22, 2017. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
  296. Jump up^ Mapes, Jillian (October 28, 2010). “Katy Perry Dedicates Leaked ‘Firework’ Video to LGBT Campaign”BillboardArchived from the original on July 19, 2015. Retrieved April 28, 2014.
  297. Jump up^ “Katy Perry talks about gay rights in interview with CGG”Do Something. November 4, 2008. Archived from the originalon October 6, 2014. Retrieved November 5, 2011.
  298. Jump up^ Hauser, Brooke (June 28, 2012). “Katy Perry Celebrates Her Independence”ParadeArchived from the original on February 21, 2014. Retrieved February 6, 2014.
  299. Jump up^ “Katy Perry Accepts Hero Award From Trevor Project”. Contactmusic.com. December 3, 2012. Archived from the original on July 12, 2014. Retrieved April 28, 2014.
  300. Jump up^ Gardner, Chris (March 9, 2017). “Katy Perry, America Ferrera and Senator Tim Kaine Set to Appear at HRC Gala”The Hollywood ReporterArchived from the original on March 11, 2017. Retrieved March 11, 2017.
  301. Jump up^ Stampler, Laura (March 18, 2014). “Katy Perry: Maybe I am a Feminist After All”TimeArchived from the original on June 15, 2014. Retrieved June 16, 2014.
  302. Jump up^ Levinson, Lauren (April 16, 2013). “Watch: Beyoncé, Blake Lively, Katy Perry, and More Unite in Chime for Change Video”ElleArchived from the original on June 30, 2014. Retrieved April 28, 2014.
  303. Jump up^ “Katy Perry Talks Body Image, Fame, and Politics in Rolling Stone Cover Story”Rolling Stone. June 22, 2011. Archivedfrom the original on March 7, 2014. Retrieved February 16,2014.
  304. Jump up^ “An Open Letter to Congress from the Music Industry”Billboard. June 23, 2016. Archived from the original on June 24, 2016. Retrieved June 23, 2016.
  305. Jump up^ Porter, Amber (October 8, 2012). “Katy Perry Nails it for Obama”. ABC News. Archived from the original on October 12, 2012. Retrieved November 4, 2012.
  306. Jump up^ Strecker, Erin (November 1, 2012). “Katy Perry performing another free concert at Obama rally”Entertainment WeeklyArchived from the original on November 5, 2012. Retrieved November 4, 2012.
  307. Jump up^ Strecker, Erin. “Katy Perry performs at third President Obama rally in Wisconsin”Entertainment WeeklyArchived from the original on February 5, 2014. Retrieved February 9, 2014.
  308. Jump up^ Nessif, Bruna (November 5, 2012). “K2012 Election: Katy Perry, George Lopez, Rashida Jones, and More Take to Twitter to Get Out the Vote”. E!. Archived from the original on April 25, 2014. Retrieved February 16, 2014.
  309. Jump up^ “Katy Perry confronts Tony Abbott on gay marriage”The Daily Telegraph. August 15, 2013. Archived from the original on March 22, 2014. Retrieved February 6, 2014.
  310. Jump up^ Schwiegershausen, Erica (April 9, 2014). “Katy Perry Exposed a Springy Strip of Upper Belly”New YorkArchived from the original on April 11, 2014. Retrieved April 9,2014.
  311. Jump up^ “Katy Perry’s Fundraiser For Kamala Harris”W. November 6, 2016. Archived from the original on November 11, 2016. Retrieved November 10, 2016.
  312. Jump up^ “Katy Perry Offers to Write Hillary Clinton Campaign Theme Song”The Hollywood Reporter. June 22, 2014. Archivedfrom the original on November 17, 2015. Retrieved August 21,2015.
  313. Jump up^ Todd, Bridget (June 13, 2015). “Celebs show they are ready for Hillary by embracing her logo”MSNBCArchived from the original on August 16, 2015. Retrieved August 21, 2015.
  314. Jump up^ Claiborne, Matthew (March 3, 2016). “Katy Perry, Elton John Perform at Hillary Clinton Fundraiser In New York”. ABC News. Archived from the original on June 10, 2016. Retrieved June 3, 2016.
  315. Jump up^ Grant, Sarah (July 28, 2016). “Watch Katy Perry ‘Rise’ and ‘Roar’ for Hillary Clinton at DNC”Rolling StoneArchivedfrom the original on July 30, 2016. Retrieved July 29, 2016.
  316. Jump up^ American Music Awards for Katy Perry:
  317. Jump up^ People’s Choice Awards for Katy Perry:
  318. Jump up^ Trust, Gary (May 12, 2011). “Katy Perry Celebrates Year in Hot 100’s Top 10”BillboardArchived from the original on May 12, 2011. Retrieved May 13, 2011.
  319. Jump up^ Murray, Gordon (July 13, 2017). “Another One in the Basket: Katy Perry Nets 18th Club No. 1 With ‘Swish Swish'”Billboard. Retrieved September 27, 2017.
  320. Jump up^ “Greatest of All Time Top Dance Club Artists”Billboard. Retrieved September 27, 2017.
  321. Jump up^ “Greatest of All Time Pop Songs Artists”Billboard. Retrieved January 3, 2018.
  322. Jump up^ “Greatest of All Time Billboard 200 Albums by Women”Billboard. Retrieved January 3, 2018.
  323. Jump up^ “Greatest of All Time Hot 100 Songs”Billboard. Retrieved January 3, 2018.
  324. Jump up^ “Greatest of All Time Hot 100 Songs by Women”Billboard. Retrieved January 3, 2018.
  325. Jump up^ Strecker, Erin (June 10, 2015). “Katy Perry’s ‘Dark Horse’ Passes 1 Billion Vevo Views”BillboardArchived from the original on June 12, 2015. Retrieved June 10, 2015.
  326. Jump up^ Kaufman, Gil (June 9, 2015). “Katy Perry Just Beat Taylor Swift To A Huge Milestone”. MTV News. Archived from the original on June 10, 2015. Retrieved June 9, 2015.
  327. Jump up^ “Katy Perry’s ‘Roar’ Video Surpasses 1 Billion Vevo Views”iHeartRadio. July 10, 2015. Archived from the original on September 23, 2015. Retrieved August 6, 2015.
  328. Jump up^ “Top Artists (Digital Singles)”. Recording Industry Association of America. Archived from the original on January 26, 2016. Retrieved August 21, 2015.
  329. Jump up^ “Katy Perry Makes Gold & Platinum History”. Recording Industry Association of America. June 21, 2017. Retrieved June 22, 2017.
  330. Jump up^ Grein, Paul (May 21, 2014). “MJ Makes Hot 100 History”. Yahoo! Music. Archived from the original on May 22, 2014. Retrieved May 21, 2014.
  331. Jump up^ “The Wild World of User Generated Content and Streaming”. Association of Independent Music Publishers. November 15, 2012. Archived from the original on August 6, 2016. Retrieved June 29, 2016.
  332. Jump up^ Adejobi, Alicia (September 13, 2016). “How Katy Perry became the most-followed celebrity on Twitter with 92.7 million fans”International Business TimesArchived from the original on September 14, 2016. Retrieved September 15, 2016.
  333. Jump up^ McIntyre, Hugh (July 1, 2016). “Katy Perry Just Hit 90 Million Twitter Followers. Is 100 Million Coming Soon?”ForbesArchived from the original on July 1, 2016. Retrieved July 2,2016.

Sources

External links

Self-portrait

self-portrait is a representation of an artist that is drawn, painted, photographed, or sculpted by that artist. Although self-portraits have been made since the earliest times, it is not until the Early Renaissance in the mid-15th century that artists can be frequently identified depicting themselves as either the main subject, or as important characters in their work. With better and cheaper mirrors, and the advent of the panel portrait, many painters, sculptors and printmakers tried some form of self-portraiturePortrait of a Man in a Turban by Jan van Eyck of 1433 may well be the earliest known panel self-portrait.[1] He painted a separate portrait of his wife, and he belonged to the social group that had begun to commission portraits, already more common among wealthy Netherlanders than south of the Alps. The genre is venerable, but not until the Renaissance, with increased wealth and interest in the individual as a subject, did it become truly popular.[2]

Raphael, c. 1517–1518, Uffizi Gallery

Types of Self Portrait

 Pieter ClaeszVanitas with Violin and Glass Ball, the artist is visible in the reflection, 1625.

A self-portrait may be a portrait of the artist, or a portrait included in a larger work, including a group portrait. Many painters are said to have included depictions of specific individuals, including themselves, in painting figures in religious or other types of composition. Such paintings were not intended publicly to depict the actual persons as themselves, but the facts would have been known at the time to artist and patron, creating a talking point as well as a public test of the artist’s skill.[3]

In the earliest surviving examples of medieval and renaissance self-portraiture, historical or mythical scenes (from the Bible or classical literature) were depicted using a number of actual persons as models, often including the artist, giving the work a multiple function as portraiture, self-portraiture and history/myth painting. In these works, the artist usually appears as a face in the crowd or group, often towards the edges or corner of the work and behind the main participants. Rubens‘s The Four Philosophers (1611–12)[4] is a good example. This culminated in the 17th century with the work of Jan de Bray. Many artistic media have been used; apart from paintings, drawings and prints have been especially important.

In the famous Arnolfini Portrait (1434), Jan van Eyck is probably one of two figures glimpsed in a mirror – a surprisingly modern conceit. The Van Eyck painting may have inspired Diego Velázquez to depict himself in full view as the painter creating Las Meninas (1656), as the Van Eyck hung in the palace in Madrid where he worked. This was another modern flourish, given that he appears as the painter (previously unseen in official royal portraiture) and standing close to the King’s family group who were the supposed main subjects of the painting.[5]

In what may be one of the earliest childhood self-portraits now surviving, Albrecht Dürer depicts himself as in naturalistic style as a 13-year-old boy in 1484. In later years he appears variously as a merchant in the background of Biblical scenes and as Christ.[6]

Leonardo da Vinci may have drawn a picture of himself at the age of 60, in around 1512. The picture is often straightforwardly reproduced as Da Vinci’s appearance, although this is not certain.

In the 17th century, Rembrandt painted a range of self-portraits. In The Prodigal Son in the Tavern (c1637), one of the earliest self-portraits with family, the painting probably includes Saskia, Rembrandt’s wife, one of the earliest depictions of a family member by a famous artist. Family and professional group paintings, including the artist’s depiction, became increasingly common from the 17th century on. From the later 20th century on, video plays an increasing part in self-portraiture, and adds the dimension of audio as well, allowing the person to speak to us in their own voice.

Gallery: Inserted self-portraits

Women painters

Women artists are notable producers of self-portraits; almost all significant women painters have left an example, from Caterina van Hemessen to the prolific Elisabeth Vigée-Lebrun, and Frida Kahlo, as well as Alice NeelPaula Modersohn-Becker and Jenny Savillewho painted themselves in the nude. Vigée-Lebrun painted a total of 37 self-portraits, many of which were copies of earlier ones, painted for sale. Until the 20th century women were usually unable to train in drawing the nude, which made it difficult for them to paint large figure compositions, leading many artists to specialize in portrait work. Women artists have historically embodied a number of roles within their self-portraiture. Most common is the artist at work, showing themselves in the act of painting, or at least holding a brush and palette. Often, the viewer wonders if the clothes worn were those they normally painted in, as the elaborate nature of many ensembles was an artistic choice to show her skill at fine detail.

 Frida Kahlo, Self-Portrait with Thorn Necklace and Hummingbird, Nickolas Muray Collection, Harry Ransom Center, University of Texas at Austin[9]

Antiquity

Images of artists at work are encountered in Ancient Egyptian painting, and sculpture[12] and also on Ancient Greek vases. One of the first self-portraits was made by the Pharaoh Akhenaten‘s chief sculptor Bak in 1365 BC. Plutarch mentions that the Ancient Greek sculptor Phidias had included a likeness of himself in a number of characters in the “Battle of the Amazons” on the Parthenon, and there are classical references to painted self-portraits, none of which have survived.

Self portraits in Asia

Portraits and self-portraits have a longer continuous history in Asian art than in Europe. Many in the scholar gentleman tradition are quite small, depicting the artist in a large landscape, illustrating a poem in calligraphy on his experience of the scene. Another tradition, associated with Zen Buddhism, produced lively semi-caricatured self-portraits, whilst others remain closer to the conventions of the formal portrait.

Self Portraits in European art

 Joseph Wright of Derby Self-portrait (1765-1768)

Illuminated manuscripts contain a number of apparent self-portraits, notably those of Saint Dunstan and Matthew Paris. Most of these either show the artist at work, or presenting the finished book to either a donor or a sacred figure, or venerating such a figure.[13] Orcagna is believed to have painted himself as a figure in a fresco of 1359,[citation needed] which became, at least according to art historians — Vasari records a number of such traditions — a common practice of artists.[citation needed] However, for earlier artists, with no other portrait to compare to, these descriptions are necessarily rather speculative. Among the earliest self-portraits are also two frescos by Johannes Aquila, one in Velemér (1378), western Hungary, and one in Martjanci (1392), northeastern Slovenia.[14] In Italy Giotto di Bondone (1267–1337) included himself in the cycle of “eminent men” in the Castle of Naples, Masaccio(1401–1428) depicted himself as one of the apostles in the painting of the Brancacci Chapel, and Benozzo Gozzoli includes himself, with other portraits, in the Palazzo Medici Procession of the Magi (1459), with his name written on his hat. This is imitated a few years later by Sandro Botticelli, as a spectator of the Adoration of the Magi (1475), who turns from the scene to look at us. Fourteenth-century sculpted portrait busts of and by the Parler family in Prague Cathedral include self-portraits, and are among the earliest such busts of non-royal figures. Ghiberti included a small head of himself in his most famous work. Notably, the earliest self-portrait painted in England, other than in a manuscript, is the miniature painted in oils on panel by the German artist Gerlach Flicke, 1554.

Albrecht Dürer, 1471–1528, the first prolific self-portraitist

Albrecht Dürer was an artist highly conscious of his public image and reputation, whose main income came from his old master prints, all containing his famous monogram, which were sold throughout Europe. He probably depicted himself more often than any artist before him, producing at least twelve images, including three oil portraits, and figures in four altarpieces. The earliest is a silverpoint drawing created when he was thirteen years old. At twenty-two Dürer painted the Self-portrait with Carnation (1493, Louvre), probably to send to his new fiancée. The Madrid self-portrait (1498, Prado) depicts Dürer as a dandy in fashionable Italian dress, reflecting the international success he had achieved by then. In his last self-portrait, sold or given to the city of Nuremberg, and displayed publicly, which very few portraits then were, the artist depicted himself with an unmistakable resemblance to Jesus Christ (Munich, Alte Pinakothek). He later re-used the face in a religious engraving of, revealingly, the Veil of Veronica, Christ’s own “self-portrait” (B.25). A self-portrait in gouache he sent to Raphael has not survived. A woodcut of a bathhouse and a drawing show virtually nude self-portraits.[15]

Renaissance and Baroque

The great Italian painters of the Renaissance made comparatively few formal painted self-portraits, but often included themselves in larger works. Most individual self-portraits they have left were straightforward depictions; Dürer’s showmanship was rarely followed, although a controversially attributed Self-portrait as David by Giorgione would have something of the same spirit, if it is a self-portrait. There is a portrait by Pietro Perugino of about 1500 (Collegio del Cambio of Perugia), and one by the young Parmigianino showing the view in a convex mirror. There is also a drawing by Leonardo da Vinci (1512),[16] and self-portraits in larger works by Michelangelo, who gave his face to the skin of St. Bartholomew in the Last Judgement of the Sistine Chapel (1536–1541), and Raphael who is seen in the characters of School of Athens 1510, or with a friend who holds his shoulder (1518). Also notable are two portraits of Titian as an old man in the 1560s. Paolo Veronese appears as a violinist clothed in white in his Marriage at Cana, accompanied by Titian on the bass viol (1562). Northern artists continued to make more individual portraits, often looking very much like their other bourgeois sitters. Johan Gregor van der Schardt produced a painted terracotta bust of himself (c.1573).[17]

Titian‘s Allegory of Prudence (c. 1565–70) is thought to depict Titian, his son Orazio, and a young cousin, Marco Vecellio.[18] Titian also painted a late self-portrait in 1567; apparently his first. Baroque artist Artemisia Gentileschi‘s La Pittura (Self-portrait as the allegory of painting) presents herself embodying the classical allegorical representation of Painting, seen in the dramatic mask worn around Gentileschi’s neck which Painting often carries. The artist’s focus on her work, away from the viewer, highlights the drama of the Baroque period, and the changing role of the artist from craftsperson to singular innovator.[19] Caravaggio painted himself in Bacchus at the beginning of his career, then appears in the staffage of some of his larger paintings. Finally, the head of Goliath held by David(1605–10, Galleria Borghese) is Caravaggio’s own.

Rembrandt and the 17th century in Northern Europe

In the 17th century, Flemish and Dutch artists painted themselves far more often; by this date most successful artists had a position in society where a member of any trade would consider having their portrait painted. Many also include their families, again following the normal practice for the middle-classes. Mary BealeAnthony van Dyck and Peter Paul Rubens gave us numerous images of themselves, the latter also often painting his family. This practice was especially common for women artists, whose inclusion of their families was often a deliberate attempt to mitigate criticism of their profession causing distraction from their “natural role” as mothers.[19]

Rembrandt was the most frequent self-portraitist, at least until the self-obsessed modern period, also often painting his wife, son and mistress. At one time about ninety paintings were counted as Rembrandt self-portraits, but it is now known that he had his students copy his own self-portraits as part of their training. Modern scholarship has reduced the autograph count to something over forty paintings, as well as a few drawings and thirty-one etchings, which include many of the most remarkable images of the group. Many show him posing in quasi-historical fancy dress, or pulling faces at himself. His oil paintings trace the progress from an uncertain young man to the dapper and very successful portrait-painter of the 1630s to the troubled but massively powerful portraits of his old age.[20]

After Rembrandt

Self-Portrait of Van Gogh with head bandaged, after he (debatedly) cut off part of his ear.

In Spain, there were self-portraits of Bartolomé Estéban Murillo and Diego VelázquezFrancisco de Zurbarán represented himself in Luke the Evangelist at the feet of Christ on the cross (around 1635). In the 19th century, Goya painted himself numerous times. French self-portraits, at least after Nicolas Poussin tend to show the social status of the artist, although Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin and some other instead showed their real working costume very realistically. This was a decision all 18th-century self-portraitists needed to make, although many painted themselves in both formal and informal costume in different paintings. Thereafter, one can say that most significant painters left us at least one self-portrait, even after the decline of the painted portrait with the arrival of photography. Gustave Courbet (see below) was perhaps the most creative self-portraitist of the 19th century, and The Artist’s studio and Bonjour, Monsieur Courbet are perhaps the largest self-portraits ever painted. Both contain many figures, but are firmly centred on the heroic figure of the artist.

Prolific modern self-portraitists

 Vincent van GoghSelf Portrait, dedicated to Gauguin, 1888

One of the most famous and most prolific of self-portraitists was Vincent van Gogh, who drew and painted himself more than 43 times between 1886 and 1889.[21][22] In all of these self-portraits one is struck that the gaze of the painter is seldom directed at us; even when it is a fixed gaze, he seems to look elsewhere. These paintings vary in intensity and color and some portray the artist with bandages; representing the episode in which he severed one of his ears.[23]

The many self-portraits of Egon Schiele set new standards of openness, or perhaps exhibitionism, representing him naked in many positions, sometimes masturbating or with an erection, as in Eros (1911). Stanley Spencer was to follow somewhat in this vein. Max Beckmann was a prolific painter of self-portraits [24] as was Edvard Munch who made great numbers of self-portrait paintings (70), prints (20) and drawings or watercolours (over 100) throughout his life, many showing him being badly treated by life, and especially by women.[25] Obsessively using the self-portrait as a personal and introspective artistic expression was Horst Janssen, who produced hundreds of self-portraits depicting him a wide range of contexts most notably in relation to sickness, moodyness and death.[26] The 2004 exhibition “Schiele, Janssen. Selbstinszenierung, Eros, Tod” (Schiele, Janssen: Self-dramatisation, Eros, Death) at the Leopold Museum in Vienna paralleled the works of Egon Schiele and Horst Janssen, both heavily drawing on sujets of erotica and death in combination with relentless self-portraiture.[27] Frida Kahlo, who following a terrible accident spent many years bedridden, with only herself for a model, was another painter whose self-portraits depict great pain, in her case physical as well as mental. Her 55-odd self-portraits include many of herself from the waist up, and also some nightmarish representations which symbolize her physical sufferings.[28][29]

Throughout his long career, Pablo Picasso often used self-portraits to depict himself in the many different guises, disguises and incarnations of his autobiographical artistic persona. From the young unknown “Yo Picasso” period to the “Minotaur in the Labyrinth” period, to the “old Cavalier” and the “lecherous old artist and model” periods. Often Picasso’s self-portraits depicted and revealed complicated psychological insights, both personal and profound about the inner state and well being of the artist. Another artist who painted interestingly personal and revealing self-portraits throughout his career was Pierre Bonnard. Bonnard also painted dozens of portraits of his wife Marthe throughout her life as well. Vincent van GoghPaul GauguinEgon Schiele and Horst Janssen in particular made intense (at times disturbingly so) and self-revealing self-portraits throughout their careers.

Self-portraits in general

Gallery: painters at work

 Gustave CourbetThe Painter’s Studio: A Real Allegory of a Seven Year Phase in my Artistic (and Moral) Life, 1855, Louvre

 RembrandtThe Artist in his Studio, 1628, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

Many of the medieval portraits show the artist at work, and Jan van Eyck (above) his chaperon hat has the parts normally hanging loose tied up on his head, giving the misleading impression he is wearing a turban, presumably for convenience whilst he paints.[30] In the early modern period, increasingly, men as well as women who painted themselves at work had to choose whether to present themselves in their best clothes, and best room, or to depict studio practice realistically. See also the Gallery of Women painters above.

Classification

Art critic Galina Vasilyeva-Shlyapina separates two basic forms of the self-portrait: “professional” portraits, in which the artist is depicted at work, and “personal” portraits, which reveal moral and psychological features. She also proposes a more detailed taxonomy: (1) the “insertable” self-portrait, where the artist inserts his or her own portrait into, for example, a group of characters related to some subject; (2) the “prestigious, or symbolic” self-portrait, where an artist depicts him- or herself in the guise of a historical person or religious hero; (3) the “group portrait” where artist is depicted with members of family or other real persons; (4) the “separate or natural” self-portrait, where the artist is depicted alone. However it might be thought these classes are rather rigid; many portraits manage to combine several of them.[31]

With new media came a chance to create different kinds of self-portraits besides simply static painting or photographs. Many people, especially teens, use social networking sites to form their own personal identity on the internet.[32] Still others use blogs or create personal web pages to create a space for self-expression and self-portraiture.

Mirrors and poses

 Las Meninas, painted in 1656, shows Diego Velázquez working at the easel to the left.

The self-portrait supposes in theory the use of a mirror; glass mirrors became available in Europe in the 15th century. The first mirrors used were convex, introducing deformations that the artist sometimes preserved. A painting by Parmigianino in 1524 Self-portrait in a mirror, demonstrates the phenomenon. Mirrors permit surprising compositions like the Triple self-portrait by Johannes Gumpp (1646), or more recently that of Salvador Dalí shown from the back painting his wife, Gala (1972–73). This use of the mirror often results in right-handed painters representing themselves as left-handed (and vice versa). Usually the face painted is therefore a mirror image of that the rest of the world saw, unless two mirrors were used. Most of Rembrandt’s self-portraits before 1660 show only one hand – the painting hand is left unpainted.[33] He appears to have bought a larger mirror in about 1652, after which his self-portraits become larger. In 1658 a large mirror in a wood frame broke whilst being transported to his house; nonetheless, in this year he completed his Frick self-portrait, his largest.

The size of single-sheet mirrors was restricted until technical advances made in France in 1688 by Bernard Perrot. They also remained very fragile, and large ones were much more expensive pro-rata than small ones – the breakages were recut into small pieces. About 80 cm, or two and a half feet, seems to have been the maximum size until then – roughly the size of the palace mirror in Las Meninas (the convex mirror in the Arnolfini Portrait is considered by historians impractically large, one of Van Eyck’s many cunning distortions of scale).[35] Largely for this reason, most early self-portraits show painters at no more than half-length.

Self-portraits of the artist at work were, as mentioned above, the commonest form of medieval self-portrait, and these have continued to be popular, with a specially large number from the 18th century on. One particular type in the medieval and Renaissance periods was the artist shown as Saint Luke (patron saint of artists) painting the Virgin Mary. Many of these were presented to the local Guild of Saint Luke, to be placed in their chapel. A famous large view of the artist in his studio is The Artist’s Studio by Gustave Courbet(1855), an immense “Allegory” of objects and characters amid which the painter sits.

Gallery: mortality in the self-portrait

Other meanings, storytelling

Self-portrait as David with the head of Goliath, Johan Zoffany

The self-portraits of many Contemporary artists and Modernists often are characterized by a strong sense of narrative, often but not strictly limited to vignettes from the artists life-story. Sometimes the narrative resembles fantasy, roleplaying and fiction. Besides Diego Velázquez, (in his painting Las Meninas), Rembrandt Van RijnJan de Bray, Gustave Courbet, Vincent van Gogh, and Paul Gauguin other artists whose self-portraits reveal complex narratives include Pierre BonnardMarc ChagallLucian FreudArshile GorkyAlice NeelPablo PicassoLucas SamarasJenny SavilleCindy ShermanAndy Warhol and Gilbert and George.