Collage (From the Frenchcoller, to glue, French pronunciation: ​[kɔ.laːʒ]) is a technique of an art production, primarily used in the visual arts, where the artwork is made from an assemblage of different forms, thus creating a new whole. A collage may sometimes include newspaper clippingsribbons, bits of colored or handmade papers, portions of other artwork or texts, photographs and other found objects, glued to a piece of paper or canvas. The origins of collage can be traced back hundreds of years, but this technique made a dramatic reappearance in the early 20th century as an art form of novelty. The term collage derives from the French “coller”.[1] This term was coined by both Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso in the beginning of the 20th century when collage became a distinctive part of modern art.[2]

History of Collage

Early precedents

Techniques of collage were first used at the time of the invention of paper in China, around 200 BC. The use of collage, however, wasn’t used by many people until the 10th century in Japan, when calligraphers began to apply glued paper, using texts on surfaces, when writing their poems.[3]The technique of collage appeared in medieval Europe during the 13th century. Gold leaf panels started to be applied in Gothic cathedrals around the 15th and 16th centuries. Gemstones and other precious metals were applied to religious images, icons, and also, to coats of arms.[3] An 18th century example of collage art can be found in the work of Mary Delany. In the 19th century, collage methods also were used among hobbyists for memorabilia (e.g. applied to photo albums) and books (e.g. Hans Christian AndersenCarl Spitzweg).[3]

Collage and modernism

Hannah HöchCut with the Dada Kitchen Knife through the Last Weimar Beer-Belly Cultural Epoch in Germany, 1919, collage of pasted papers, 90×144 cm, Staatliche Museum, Berlin.

Despite the pre-twentieth-century use of collage-like application techniques, some art authorities argue that collage, properly speaking, did not emerge until after 1900, in conjunction with the early stages of modernism. For example, the Tate Gallery‘s online art glossary states that collage “was first used as an artists’ technique in the twentieth century.”.[4] According to the Guggenheim Museum‘s online art glossary, collage is an artistic concept associated with the beginnings of modernism, and entails much more than the idea of gluing something onto something else. The glued-on patches which Braque and Picasso added to their canvases offered a new perspective on painting when the patches “collided with the surface plane of the painting.”[5] In this perspective, collage was part of a methodical reexamination of the relation between painting and sculpture, and these new works “gave each medium some of the characteristics of the other,” according to the Guggenheim essay. Furthermore, these chopped-up bits of newspaper introduced fragments of externally referenced meaning into the collision: “References to current events, such as the war in the Balkans, and to popular culture enriched the content of their art.” This juxtaposition of signifiers, “at once serious and tongue-in-cheek,” was fundamental to the inspiration behind collage: “Emphasizing concept and process over end product, collage has brought the incongruous into meaningful congress with the ordinary.”[5]

Collage in painting

Collage in the modernist sense began with Cubist painters Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso. According to some sources, Picasso was the first to use the collage technique in oil paintings. According to the Guggenheim Museum‘s online article about collage, Braque took up the concept of collage itself before Picasso, applying it to charcoal drawings. Picasso adopted collage immediately after (and was perhaps indeed the first to use collage in paintings, as opposed to drawings): “It was Braque who purchased a roll of simulated oak-grain wallpaper and began cutting out pieces of the paper and attaching them to his charcoal drawings. Picasso immediately began to make his own experiments in the new medium.”[5] In 1912 for his Still Life with Chair Caning (Nature-morte à la chaise cannée),[6] Picasso pasted a patch of oilcloth with a chair-cane design onto the canvas of the piece. Surrealist artists have made extensive use of collage. Cubomania is a collage made by cutting an image into squares which are then reassembled automatically or at random. Collages produced using a similar, or perhaps identical, method are called etrécissements by Marcel Mariën from a method first explored by Mariën. Surrealist games such as parallel collage use collective techniques of collage making. The Sidney Janis Gallery held an early Pop Art exhibit called the New Realist Exhibition in November 1962, which included works by the American artists Tom WesselmannJim DineRobert IndianaRoy LichtensteinClaes OldenburgJames RosenquistGeorge Segal, and Andy Warhol; and Europeans such as Arman, Baj, ChristoYves Klein, Festa, Rotella, Jean Tinguely, and Schifano. It followed the Nouveau Réalisme exhibition at the Galerie Rive Droite in Paris, and marked the international debut of the artists who soon gave rise to what came to be called Pop Art in Britain and The United States and Nouveau Réalisme on the European continent. Many of these artists used collage techniques in their work. Wesselmann took part in the New Realist show with some reservations,[7] exhibiting two 1962 works: Still life #17 and Still life #22. Another technique is that of canvas collage, which is the application, typically with glue, of separately painted canvas patches to the surface of a painting’s main canvas. Well known for use of this technique is British artist John Walker in hispaintings of the late 1970s, but canvas collage was already an integral part of the mixed media works of such American artists as Conrad Marca-Relli and Jane Frank by the early 1960s. The intensely self-critical Lee Krasner also frequently destroyed her own paintings by cutting them into pieces, only to create new works of art by reassembling the pieces into collages.

Collage with wood

Arthur DoveThe Intellectual(1925), collection: Museum of Modern Art NYC,[8] part of a series of experimental collages.

What may be called wood collageis the dominant feature in this 1964mixed media painting by Jane Frank(1918–1986)

The wood collage is a type that emerged somewhat later than paper collage. Kurt Schwitters began experimenting with wood collages in the 1920s after already having given up painting for paper collages.[9] The principle of wood collage is clearly established at least as early as his ‘Merz Picture with Candle’, dating from the mid to late 1920s.[10][11] It is also interesting to note that wood collage in a sense made its debut, indirectly, at the same time as paper collage, since (according to the Guggenheim online), Georges Braque initiated use of paper collage by cutting out pieces of simulated oak-grain wallpaper and attaching them to his own charcoal drawings.[5] Thus, the idea of gluing wood to a picture was implicitly there from the start, since the paper used in the very first paper collages was a commercial product manufactured to look like wood. It was during a fifteen-year period of intense experimentation beginning in the mid-1940s that Louise Nevelson evolved her sculptural wood collages, assembled from found scraps, including parts of furniture, pieces of wooden crates or barrels, and architectural remnants like stair railings or moldings. Generally rectangular, very large, and painted black, they resemble gigantic paintings. Concerning Nevelson’s Sky Cathedral (1958), the Museum of Modern Art catalogue states, “As a rectangular plane to be viewed from the front, Sky Cathedral has the pictorial quality of a painting…”[12] Yet such pieces also present themselves as massive walls or monoliths, which can sometimes be viewed from either side, or even looked through. Much wood collage art is considerably smaller in scale, framed and hung as a painting would be. It usually features pieces of wood, wood shavings, or scraps, assembled on a canvas (if there is painting involved), or on a wooden board. Such framed, picture-like, wood-relief collages offer the artist an opportunity to explore the qualities of depth, natural color, and textural variety inherent in the material, while drawing on and taking advantage of the language, conventions, and historical resonances that arise from the tradition of creating pictures to hang on walls. The technique of wood collage is also sometimes combined with painting and other media in a single work of art. Frequently, what is called “wood collage art” uses only natural wood – such as driftwood, or parts of found and unaltered logs, branches, sticks, or bark. This raises the question of whether such artwork is collage (in the original sense) at all (see Collage and modernism). This is because the early, paper collages were generally made from bits of text or pictures – things originally made by people, and functioning or signifying in some cultural context. The collage brings these still-recognizable “signifiers” (or fragments of signifiers) together, in a kind of semiotic collision. A truncated wooden chair or staircase newel used in a Nevelson work can also be considered a potential element of collage in the same sense: it had some original, culturally determined context. Unaltered, natural wood, such as one might find on a forest floor, arguably has no such context; therefore, the characteristic contextual disruptions associated with the collage idea, as it originated with Braque and Picasso, cannot really take place. (Driftwood is of course sometimes ambiguous: while a piece of driftwood may once have been a piece of worked wood – for example, part of a ship – it may be so weathered by salt and sea that its past functional identity is nearly or completely obscured.)


Main article: Decoupage

Decoupage is a type of collage usually defined as a craft. It is the process of placing a picture into an object for decoration. Decoupage can involve adding multiple copies of the same image, cut and layered to add apparent depth. The picture is often coated with varnish or some other sealant for protection. In the early part of the 20th century, decoupage, like many other art methods, began experimenting with a less realistic and more abstract style. 20th-century artists who produced decoupage works include Pablo Picasso and Henri Matisse. The most famous decoupage work is Matisse’s Blue Nude II. There are many varieties on the traditional technique involving purpose made ‘glue’ requiring fewer layers (often 5 or 20, depending on the amount of paper involved). Cutouts are also applied under glass or raised to give a three dimensional appearance according to the desire of the decouper. Currently decoupage is a popular handicraft. The craft became known as découpage in France (from the verb découper, ‘to cut out’) as it attained great popularity during the 17th and 18th centuries. Many advanced techniques were developed during this time, and items could take up to a year to complete due to the many coats and sandings applied. Some famous or aristocratic practitioners included Marie AntoinetteMadame de Pompadour, and Beau Brummell. In fact the majority of decoupage enthusiasts attribute the beginning of decoupage to 17th century Venice. However it was known before this time in Asia. The most likely origin of decoupage is thought to be East Siberian funerary artNomadic tribes would use cut out felts to decorate the tombs of their deceased. From Siberia, the practice came to China, and by the 12th century, cut out paper was being used to decorate lanterns, windows, boxes and other objects. In the 17th century, Italy, especially in Venice, was at the forefront of trade with the Far East and it is generally thought that it is through these trade links that the cut out paperdecorations made their way into Europe.


Main article: Photomontage

Romare BeardenThe Calabash,collage, 1970, Library of Congress

Collage made from photographs, or parts of photographs, is called photomontage. Photomontage is the process (and result) of making a composite photograph by cutting and joining a number of other photographs. The composite picture was sometimes photographed so that the final image is converted back into a seamless photographic print. The same method is accomplished today using image-editing software. The technique is referred to by professionals as compositing.

Richard HamiltonJohn McHaleJust What Is It That Makes Today’s Homes So Different, So Appealing? 1956, collage, (one of the earliest works to be considered Pop Art)

Just what is it that makes today’s homes so different, so appealing? was created in 1956 for the catalogue of the This Is Tomorrow exhibition in LondonEngland in which it was reproduced in black and white. In addition, the piece was used in posters for the exhibit.[13] Richard Hamilton has subsequently created several works in which he reworked the subject and composition of the pop art collage, including a 1992 version featuring a female bodybuilder. Many artists have created derivative works of Hamilton’s collage. P. C. Helm made a year 2000 interpretation.[14] Other methods for combining pictures are also called photomontage, such as Victorian “combination printing”, the printing from more than one negative on a single piece of printing paper (e.g. O. G. Rejlander, 1857), front-projection and computer montage techniques. Much as a collage is composed of multiple facets, artists also combine montage techniques. Romare Bearden’s (1912–1988) series of black and white “photomontage projections” is an example. His method began with compositions of paper, paint, and photographs put on boards 8½ × 11 inches. Bearden fixed the imagery with an emulsion that he then applied with handroller. Subsequently, he enlarged the collages photographically. The 19th century tradition of physically joining multiple images into a composite and photographing the results prevailed in press photography and offset lithography until the widespread use of digital image editing. Contemporary photo editors in magazines now create “paste-ups” digitally. Creating a photomontage has, for the most part, become easier with the advent of computer software such as Adobe PhotoshopPixel image editor, and GIMP. These programs make the changes digitally, allowing for faster workflow and more precise results. They also mitigate mistakes by allowing the artist to “undo” errors. Yet some artists are pushing the boundaries of digital image editing to create extremely time-intensive compositions that rival the demands of the traditional arts. The current trend is to create pictures that combine painting, theatre, illustration and graphics in a seamless photographic whole.

Digital collage

Digital collage is the technique of using computer tools in collage creation to encourage chance associations of disparate visual elements and the subsequent transformation of the visual results through the use of electronic media. It is commonly used in the creation of digital art.

3-Dimensional Collage

A 3D Collage is the art of putting altogether 3-Dimensional objects such as rocks, beads, buttons, coins or even soil to form a new whole or a new object. 3D collage is often one of the infamous kinds of collage. Examples of these can be houses, bead circles, etc.


It is the art of putting together or assembling of small pieces of paper, tiles, marble, stones, etc. They are often found in cathedrals, churches, temples as a spiritual significance of interior design.Small pieces, normally roughly quadratic, of stone or glass of different colors, known as tesserae, (diminutive tessellae), are used to create a pattern or picture.


The term “eCollage” (electronic Collage) can be used for a collage created by using computer tools.

Collage artists


Collage in other contexts

Collage in architecture

Though Le Corbusier and other architects used techniques that are akin to collage, collage as a theoretical concept only became widely discussed after the publication of Collage City (1987) by Colin Rowe and Fred Koetter. Rowe and Koetter were not, however, championing collage in the pictorial sense, much less seeking the types of disruptions of meaning that occur with collage. Instead, they were looking to challenge the uniformity of Modernism and saw collage with its non-linear notion of history as a means to reinvigorate design practice. Not only does historical urban fabric have its place, but in studying it, designers were, so it was hoped, able to get a sense of how better to operate. Rowe was a member of the so-called Texas Rangers, a group of architects who taught at the University of Texas for a while. Another member of that group was Bernhard Hoesli, a Swiss architect who went on to become an important educator at the ETH-Zurirch. Whereas for Rowe, collage was more a metaphor than an actual practice, Hoesli actively made collages as part of his design process. He was close to Robert Slutzky, a New York based artist, and frequently introduced the question of collage and disruption in his studio work.

Collage in music

Peter BlakeOn the Balcony, 1955–1957, collage, mixed-mediaTate Gallery

Main article: Sound collage

The concept of collage has crossed the boundaries of visual arts. In music, with the advances on recording technology, avant-garde artists started experimenting with cutting and pasting since the middle of the twentieth century. In the 1960s, George Martin created collages of recordings while producing the records of The Beatles. In 1967 Pop artist Peter Blake made the collage for the cover of the Beatles seminal album Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band. In the 1970s and ’80s, the likes of Christian Marclay and the group Negativland reappropriated old audio in new ways. By the 1990s and 2000s, with the popularity of the sampler, it became apparent that “musical collages” had become the norm for popular music, especially in raphip-hop and electronic music.[15] In 1996, DJ Shadow released the groundbreaking album, Endtroducing….., made entirely of preexisting recorded material mixed together in audible collage. In the same year, New York City based artist, writer, and musician, Paul D. Miller aka DJ Spooky‘s work pushed the work of sampling into a museum and gallery context as an art practice that combined DJ culture’s obsession with archival materials as sound sources on his album “Songs of a Dead Dreamer” and in his books “Rhythm Science” (2004) and “Sound Unbound (2008)” (MIT Press). In his books, “mash-up” and collage based mixes of authors, artists, and musicians such as Antonin ArtaudJames Joyce,William S. Burroughs, and Raymond Scott were featured as part of a what he called “literature of sound.” In 2000, The Avalanches released Since I Left You, a musical collage consisting of approximately 3,500 musical sources (i.e., samples).[16]


Collage is commonly used as a technique in Children’s picture book illustrationEric Carle is a prominent example, using vividly coloured hand-textured papers cut to shape and layered together, sometimes embellished with crayon or other marks. See image at The Very Hungry Caterpillar.

Literary collage

Collage novels are books with images selected from other publications and collaged together following a theme or narrative. The bible of discordianism, the Principia Discordia, is described by its author as a literary collage. A collage in literary terms may also refer to a layering of ideas or images.

Collage in film

Main article: Collage film

Collage film is traditionally defined as, “A film that juxtaposes fictional scenes with footage taken from disparate sources, such as newsreels.” Combining different types of footage can have various implications depending on the director’s approach. Collage film can also refer to the physical collaging of materials onto filmstrips. Canadian Film maker, Arthur Lipsett, was especially renown for his collage films, many of which were made from the cutting room floors of the National Film Board studios (

In post-production

The use of CGI, or computer-generated imagery, can be considered a form of collage, especially when animated graphics are layered over traditional film footage. At certain moments during Amèlie (Jean-Pierre Juenet, 2001), the mise en scène takes on a highly fantasized style, including fictitious elements like swirling tunnels of color and light. David O. Russel’s I Heart Huckabees (2004) incorporates CGI effects to visually demonstrate philosophical theories explained by the existential detectives (played by Lily Tomlin and Dustin Hoffman). In this case, the effects serve to enhance clarity, while adding a surreal aspect to an otherwise realistic film.

Legal issues

When collage uses existing works, the result is what some copyright scholars call a derivative work. The collage thus has a copyright separate from any copyrights pertaining to the original incorporated works. Due to redefined and reinterpreted copyright laws, and increased financial interests, some forms of collage art are significantly restricted. For example, in the area of sound collage (such as hip hop music), some court rulings effectively have eliminated the de minimis doctrine as a defense tocopyright infringement, thus shifting collage practice away from non-permissive uses relying on fair use or de minimis protections, and toward licensing.[17] Examples of musical collage art that have run afoul of modern copyright are The Grey Album and Negativland‘s U2. The copyright status of visual works is less troubled, although still ambiguous. For instance, some visual collage artists have argued that the first-sale doctrine protects their work. The first-sale doctrine prevents copyright holders from controlling consumptive uses after the “first sale” of their work, although the Ninth Circuit has held that the first-sale doctrine does not apply to derivative works.[18] The de minimis doctrine and the fair use exception also provide important defenses against claimed copyright infringement.[19] The Second Circuit in October, 2006, held that artist Jeff Koons was not liable for copyright infringement because his incorporation of a photograph into a collage painting was fair use.[20]

See also



  • Adamowicz, Elza (1998). Surrealist Collage in Text and Image: Dissecting the Exquisite CorpseCambridge University PressISBN 0-521-59204-6.
  • Ruddick Bloom, Susan (2006). Digital Collage and Painting: Using Photoshop and Painter to Create Fine ArtFocal PressISBN 0-240-80705-7.
  • Museum Factory -by Istvan Horkay
  • History of Collage Excerpts from Nita Leland and Virginia Lee and from George F. Brommer
  • West, Shearer (1996). The Bullfinch Guide to Art. UK: Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 0-8212-2137-X.
  • Colin Rowe and Fred Koetter. Collage City MIT University Press, Cambridge MA, 1978.
  • Mark Jarzombek, “Bernhard Hoesli Collages/Civitas,” Bernhard Hoesli: Collages, exh. cat., Christina Betanzos Pint, editor (Knoxville: University of Tennessee, September 2001), 3-11.
  • Brandon Taylor. Urban walls : a generation of collage in Europe & America : Burhan Dogançay with François Dufrêne, Raymond Hains, Robert Rauschenberg, Mimmo Rotella, Jacques Villeglé, Wolf Vostell ISBN 978-1-55595-288-4ISBN 1-55595-288-7; OCLC 191318119 (New York : Hudson Hills Press ; [Lanham, MD] : Distributed in the United States by National Book Network, 2008),
  • Excavations (Ontological Museum Acquisitions) by Richard Misiano-Genovese


  1. up^ Enslen, Denise. “Origin of the term “collage””. Archived from the original on 2012-04-12.
  2. up^ Collage, essay by Clement Greenberg Retrieved July 20, 2010
  3. Jump up to:a b c Leland, Nita; Virginia Lee Williams (September 1994). “One”. Creative Collage Techniques. North Light Books. p. 7. ISBN 0-89134-563-9.
  4. up^
  5. Jump up to:a b c d
  6. up^ Nature-morte à la chaise cannée – Musée National Picasso Paris
  7. up^ (cf. S. Stealingworth, 1980, p. 31)
  8. up^ MoMA
  9. up^
  10. up^
  11. up^
  12. up^ Louise Nevelson – The Museum of Modern Art, MoMA Highlights, New York: The Museum of Modern Art, revised 2004, originally published 1999, p. 222
  13. up^ “This is tomorrow”, (scroll to “image 027TT-1956.jpg”). Retrieved 27 August 2008.
  14. up^ “Just what is it”, Retrieved 27 August 2008.
  15. up^ Guy Garcia (June 1991). “Play It Again, Sampler”Time Magazine. Retrieved 2008-03-27.
  16. up^ Mark Pytlik (November 2006). “The Avalanches”Sound on Sound. Retrieved 2007-06-16.
  17. up^ See Bridgeport Music, 6th Cir.
  18. up^ Mirage Editions, Inc. v. Albuquerque A.R.T. Co., 856 F.2d 1341 (9th Cir. 1989)
  19. up^ See the Fair Use Network for further explanations.
  20. up^ Blanch v. Koons, — F.3d –, 2006 WL 3040666 (2d Cir. Oct. 26, 2006)

External links

Look up collage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Collage.

Photographic mosaic

A photographic mosaic of a sea gull made from pictures of birds and other nature photos using hexagonal tiles

In the field of photographic imaging, a photographic mosaic, also known under the term Photomosaic, a portmanteau of photo and mosaic, is a picture (usually a photograph) that has been divided into (usually equal sized) rectangular sections, each of which is replaced with another photograph that matches the target photo.[1] When viewed at low magnifications, the individual pixels appear as the primary image, while close examination reveals that the image is in fact made up of many hundreds or thousands of smaller images.[1] Most of the time they are a computer-created type of montage.

Kinds of mosaic

There are two kinds of mosaic, depending on how the matching is done. In the simpler kind, each part of the target image is averaged down to a single color. Each of the library images is also reduced to a single color. Each part of the target image is then replaced with one from the library where these colors are as similar as possible. In effect, the target image is reduced in resolution (by downsampling), and then each of the resulting pixels is replaced with an image whose average color matches that pixel.

Photo mosaic Solveiga

Advanced kind of photographic mosaic

In the more advanced kind of photographic mosaic, the target image is not downsampled, and the matching is done by comparing each pixel in the rectangle to the corresponding pixel from each library image. The rectangle in the target is then replaced with the library image that minimizes the total difference. This require much more computation than the simple kind, but the results can be much better since the pixel-by-pixel matching can preserve the resolution of the target image.

Picture from

Picture from

Photo Collage

Photo collages produced with Artensoft Photo Collage Maker are of the highest visual quality. They look great from afar and are perfect when scrutinized up close. Artensoft Photo Collage Maker uses sophisticated algorithms to mix and match existing cell images in order to create a piece of art that can be enjoyed from afar and truly appreciated up close:

Photo collages produced with Artensoft Photo Collage Maker are of the highest visual quality. They look great from afar and are perfect when scrutinized up close. Artensoft Photo Collage Maker uses sophisticated algorithms to mix and match existing cell images in order to create a piece of art that can be enjoyed from afar and truly appreciated up close:

There’s no color blending producing faux digital photomosaic; instead, Artensoft Photo Collage Maker uses advanced mix-and-match to assemble a perfect photo collage out of a number of different images. Just look at the 100% crop of the image above to see the level of detail.

Term photomosaic

Originally, the term photomosaic referred to compound photographs created by stitching together a series of adjacent pictures of a scene. Space scientists have been assembling mosaics of this kind since at least as early as the Soviet Union space satellite missions to the moon in the late 1950s. The name photomosaic and an implementation concept were trademarked by Robert Silvers’ Runaway Technology, Inc.[2]



1993 Live from Bell Labs event poster

  • 1993 Joseph Francis, working for R/Greenberg Associates in Manhattan, is believed to be the inventor of the modern-day computer-generated colour image versions. His Live from Bell Labs poster created in 1993 used computer-themed tile photographs to create a mosaic of a face ( Ryszard Horowitz/ Photography and Art Direction, Robert Bowen/ Digital Artist). He went on to create a mosaic for Animation Magazine in 1993, which was repeated in Wired Magazine(November 1994, p. 106). Francis has said on his “History of Photo Mosaics” webpage that his interest in developing these techniques further was in part stimulated by the work of artist Chuck Close.
  • 1994 Dave McKean creates an image for DC Comics, a mosaic of a face made from photos of faces, although this is believed to be created manually using Photoshop.
  • 1994 Adam Finkelstein and Sandy Farrier create a mosaic of John F. Kennedy from parts of Marilyn Monroe pictures. The result was displayed in the Xerox PARC Algorithmic Art Show in 1994.
  • 1994 Benetton: AIDS – Faces mosaic. Over one thousand young peoples’ portraits from all over the word computer-processed spell out the word AIDS.
  • 1995 The Gioconda Sapiens, a face with ten thousand faces, was presented to the public in April 1995 (Spain, Domus museum). This was the first large photographic mosaic, using photographs of 10,062 people from 110 countries to make the Mona Lisa.
  • 1995 Robert Silvers creates an algorithm for generating Photomosaics programmatically and goes on to trademark the term Photomosaic and patent his process for creation of Photomosaics in 1997.

Artistic aspects

There is debate over whether Photomosaics are an art or mere technique.[3] The making of a photomosaic is sometimes paralled and compared to forms of artistic appropriation, like literary assemblage.[4]

Trademark and intellectual property of the concept

Robert Silvers, a Master’s student at MIT, filed for a trademark on the term Photomosaic on September 3, 1996. This trademark was registered on August 12, 2003.[2]

Silvers also applied for a U.S. patent on the production of Photomosaics on January 2, 1997, which was granted as US 6137498 in October 2000 and has been assigned to Runaway Technology, Inc. Patent applications in other countries were also filed, and patents granted include EP 0852363JP 10269353,CA 2226059, and AU 723815B. He is quoted as saying: “By being granted this patent in the United States and other countries, we can protect our proprietary innovations and continue to make unique artwork.” [5] In September 2008, the Public Patent Foundation filed a formal request with the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) to review certain claims in the US 6137498 on photomosaics. The request was granted and a reexamination proceeding ensued. On August 31, 2010, the USPTO issued a Reexamination Certificate confirming the patentability of all claims in the patent which were amended to refer to shape matching (a feature that contributes to the high resolution of photomosaics).

There are a number of other commercial companies that create mosaics with photos. Since there has been no litigation of these patents, these companies must therefore either use processes that do not infringe on the particular claimed process, have licenses under the patents, or are infringing those patents but Runaway Technology has chosen not to bring infringement proceedings.

Silvers’ patent may be regarded as a software patent, a subject over which there is a great deal of debate. For example, Article 52(2)(c) EPC states that “programs for computers as such” are not regarded as patentable inventions. Nevertheless, current practice relating to computer-implemented inventions under the EPC means that a process that provides a technical effect may be patented even if it is implemented by a computer.

The UK patent deriving from EP 0852363 became the subject of revocation proceedings in July 2006.[6] In September 2009, the UK Intellectual Property Office (UK-IPO) decided that the patent should not be revoked and terminated the proceeding. This decision was made by the UKIPO and not the European Patent Office(EPO) which originally granted the patent since no opposition to the European patent was filed within the nine-month post-grant period.[7]

Video mosaic

Photographic mosaics are typically formed from a collection of still images. A more recent phenomenon, however, has been video mosaics which assemble video clips rather than still images to create a larger image. The closing credits of the 2005 PlayStation 2 game God of War, for example, incorporates a still image of the main character, Kratos, formed from a number of in-game videos.

The term “video mosaic” also describes a large still image made from adjacent frames of video, such as those from video shots of geographic features like roads or cities. A mosaic of the video’s relevant frames replaces the full video, saving time and bandwidth, since the stills are much smaller.

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Photomosaics


  1. Jump up to:a b Cartwright (2007) p.102 quote:

    Photographic mosaic, also known as Photomosaic, a portmanteau of photo and mosaic, is a picture that is divided into small sections. When viewed as a whole, it appears to be one image, when in fact the image is made up of hundreds or even thousands of smaller images.

  2. Jump up to:a b “Tradmark information for Trademark 75159436”. US Tradmark Office. Retrieved 2007-08-16.
  3. Jump up^ Silvers (2000) quote: “More than anything else people ask me whether Photomosaics are an art or a science. l tell them that Photomosaics, like any art in formative stage, has elements of both.”
  4. Jump up^ Menke (2008) p.232 quote:

    [In Rudyard Kipling’s 1902 science-fiction short story “Wireless”] we recognize that the tale’s marshalling of realistic particulars has also been a systematic importation of details from Keats’s poetry and life history […] The tale’s elaborate descriptions were really Keats’s pre-scriptions all along. As in a photomosaic image, the elements of the story that make it seem recognizable and real turn out to be chosen from an artificially constrained palette of appropriations; examined closely, each realistic detail reveals itself as a micro-quotation from that collection.

  5. Jump up^ Silvers, Robert. “Robert Silvers | Corporate | Patents”. Runaway Technology, Inc. Retrieved November 12, 2011.
  6. Jump up^ Using the UK Patents Status Enquiry for EP0852363 provides full details on the current status of the patent.
  7. Jump up^ Welcome to epoline


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Trey Ratcliff: a photographer, artist, public speaker and writer

Trey_Ratcliff Trey Ratcliff (born July 7, 1971) is a photographerartistpublic speaker and writer. He posts a new photo each day on his travel blog StuckInCustoms[1] of the destinations and situations he finds himself in as he travels the world. His work has been featured on the BBCABCFOXCBS, and NBC.[2] Ratcliff studied computer science and mathematics at Southern Methodist University graduating in 1995. He pioneered the field of High Dynamic Range (HDR) photography. Originally a hobbyist photographer, he started exploring HDR because he was disappointed that the landscape photographs he had taken did not appear as he remembered the scenes. After exploring and developing techniques in the then relatively obscure HDR method, he began featuring his photographic work on his blog in 2005. His photographic work is licensed through Creative Commons Noncommercial. Early in Ratcliff’s career, two of his HDR photographs were selected as winners of the Smithsonian Magazine’s 4th Annual Photo Contest.,[3] The two photos “Fourth at Lake Austin” [4] and “A macaque monkey sits on a wall in Kuala Lumpur”[5] hang in the Smithsonian Institute.


On Frozen Pond I probably should not have been standing in the middle of this frozen pond, but when you are raised in Texas and you rarely get to see anything frozen, you get fascinated by large frozen bodies of water. I just stared at it for a long time like a deer that’s never seen headlights in the forest. I felt the saying, “When in Rome”, and somehow replaced it with “When in Reykjavik…” I slowly shuffled my feet out to the middle, using my tripod as an Imperial Hoth Walker to secure my footing. Once I got to the right spot for the lens, I ripped off a few shots before heading over to the safely of the shore. – Trey Ratcliff


His first book, “A World in HDR”, published in 2009,[6] quickly sold out in several countries.[7] He began releasing eBooks in 2010, the first of which was “Top 10 HDR Mistakes and How to Fix Them.” All of his photography eBooks are on Flatbooks a website Ratcliff created in 2011 to be a collection of eBooks focusing on the topic of HDR photography. Ratcliff also launched the website HDRSpotting along with Denis Khoo.[8] Guest editors at have included Jason St. Peter, Chris Nowakowski, Brian Matiash, Kay Gaensler, John Rogers, Scott Wyden Kivowitz, Mike Criswell, and James Brandon.[9] In 2010, Ratcliff released his first HDR tutorial, a compilation of HDR instructional workshop footage.[10] Since that initial release, Ratcliff has created additional tutorials covering topics for novice photographers as well as seasoned veterans.[11] Ratcliff’s endeavors also include iOS and Android apps such as 100CamerasIn1,[12] an application that allows users to process mobile photos with different effects and then post the finished product to their social media sites, and Stuck On Earth,[13] a travel application that shows users places in the world to visit, photograph, and experience. His most recent release, Light Camera – Mark 1,[14] allows for real-time viewing of filters and effects allowing the user to see the end result of a photo before it has been taken. Like his other camera applications, users can then upload their finished product to their social media sites. He also supports charitable causes through Kiva Microfunds. As of September 2013, the Stuck in Customs Kiva team has raised and contributed more than $36,000.[15]

Dinner in Carmel: Trey-Ratcliff

Dinner in Carmel I found this place thanks to my friend Vic Gundotra. I was searching for local places to eat on my phone, and I saw that he recommended it. If it’s good enough for him, then it’s good enough for me!Actually, I think I kind of like this new way of searching. I like that my friend’s recommendations are pushed to the top of the algorithm. It’s a much more interesting way to search… I’m trying to think of examples when it would not work, and I really can’t. Well, one example is I do have this one friend that has HORRIBLE taste in movies. I am kind of worried that if I search for a movie to watch one night that his ridiculous suggestions might come out on top! – Trey Ratcliff

Speaking Engagements and Workshops

Ratcliff has given speeches at Google,[16] Pinterest,[17] Kent State University[18] and various conferences[19][20] around the world.[21] Ratcliff teaches photography and post-processing at workshops staged around the world in locations like Paris, Christchurch and Queensland, New Zealand.[22]

Trey Ratcliff - Night Rain in Ibiza

A Rainy and Romantic Night in Ibiza
Part of Ibiza is an old walled medieval town that is surrounded by layers of winding streets old shops intermixed with homes. A few streets away from the walls, some of the streets are full of pubs and quirky shops… I think it’s better to explore them at night than in the day – and especially so in the rain.
On this night, it was a little chilly and rainy, but that does not effect my camera. I’ve never had a problem because of rain or cold or heat or anything. It just works!
The rainy streets were full of colors and life. I saw this couple quickly walking under an umbrella so I took a quick one to capture the scene.
– Trey Ratcliff


Early controversy of Ratcliff focused on HDR photography, where the nature of its post-processing was heavily criticized.[23] Other controversies Ratcliff has encountered have focused on the use of the Creative Commons Noncommercial licensing model,[24] DSLR vs. mirror-less cameras,[25] and the use of watermarks when publishing online[26]

The Milford Sound Spray: Trey-Ratcliff

The Milford Sound Spray
People are sometimes disappointed when they come to Milford Sound and it is raining, but that is really one of the best times! The waterfalls go absolutely crazy, and there are, in my opinion, more interesting photos to be taken than in the sunshine. Of course, it’s a very different kind of photo, but you really can’t go wrong.
There are a few boat cruises that go out into the sound and the ocean as well… those are all highly recommended. If you see Eric Lim from Southern Discoveries, be sure to tell him hello from Trey!
– Trey Ratcliff

More photos from Trey Ratcliff  >> here <<

And here:

References: Trey Ratcliff

  1. ^ “”.
  2. ^ “About Me – Trey Ratcliff and Stuck in Customs”. Retrieved 2011-10-07.
  3. ^ “Smithsonian Photography Contest – Two of the Top Ten Winners!”. Retrieved 2013-09-15.
  4. ^ “Fourth at Lake Austin”. 2007-04-23. Retrieved 2013-09-15.
  5. ^ “A macaque monkey sits on a wall in Kuala Lumpur”. 2006-10-20. Retrieved 2015-09-15.
  6. ^ “A Book Announcement”. 2009-07-07. Retrieved 2013-09-15.
  7. ^ “The World in HDR sold out on amazon…”. 2010-01-06. Retrieved 2013-09-15.
  8. ^ “About HDR Spotting”. Retrieved 2011-10-07.
  9. ^ “HDR Spotting Guest Editors”. Retrieved 2011-10-07.
  10. ^ “HDR Tutorial – How to Make Beautiful HDR Photos With Ease!”. 2013-03-25. Retrieved 2013-09-15.
  11. ^ “Photography Tutorials”. 2012-10-22. Retrieved 2013-09-15.
  12. ^ “100 Cameras in 1 – Best iPhone Camera”. Retrieved 2011-10-07.
  13. ^ “Stuck In Customs Newsletter #27”. Retrieved 2013-09-15.
  14. ^ “The Light Camera, Mark 1”. Retrieved 2013-09-15.
  15. ^ “Lending Team: Team Stuck In Customs”. Kiva. Retrieved 2013-09-15.
  16. ^ “The World We Design – Trey Ratcliff Zeitgeist Americas 2012”. zeitgeistminds channel on YouTube. 2012-10-16. Retrieved 2013-09-16.
  17. ^ “Pinterest”. 2012-09-16. Retrieved 2013-09-16.
  18. ^ “Trey Ratcliff Headlines First Presidential Speaker Series”. Kent State University. Retrieved 2013-09-16.
  19. ^ “Biography of Trey Ratcliff”. The E-G. Retrieved 2013-09-16.
  20. ^ “Speakers”. Retrieved 2013-09-16.
  21. ^ “Speaking Engagements”. Stuck In Customs. Retrieved 2013-09-16.
  22. ^ “Photograph Workshops”. Stuck In Customs. 2012-10-03. Retrieved 2013-09-16.
  23. ^ “Why I Hate HDR Photo Technology Porn”. 2007-08-07. Retrieved 2013-09-15.
  24. ^ “Go Ahead and Steal this Photo and make prints”. 2012-03-01. Retrieved 2013-09-15.
  26. ^ “Miss Aniela Extravaganza”. 2013-07-08. Retrieved 2013-09-15.

Text from wikipedia

Painting Magic Plane

Today in Calgary, WestJet, WestJet Vacations and Walt Disney Parks & Resorts (Canada) unveiled a custom-painted Boeing Next-Generation 737-800 series aircraft featuring Mickey Mouse as Sorcerer Mickey, a role the cartoon character first portrayed in the Walt Disney Productions film Fantasia, which came out in 1940.

The plane sets off for its inaugural flight on Tuesday, Dec. 3, flying from Calgary to Orlando, the home of Mickey Mouse and Walt Disney World Resort.


After that, what WestJet has dubbed the “Magic Plane” will fly on WestJet’s domestic, trans-border and international network, which includes 39 flights per week from various Canadian cities to Orlando.

With today’s unveiling, WestJet released a list of fun facts about the Magic Plane, including the fact that cookies served on board are in the shape of Disney characters, that the design includes 36 different paint colors and that it took a team of 26 people 24 days working around the clock to paint the Magic Plane.

The airline added this teaser: the images on both sides of the aircraft are mirror images of each other, but “they are identical in all aspects but one.”

WestJet said in a statement that it will let passengers figure out the difference.

Harriet Baskas is the author of seven books, including Hidden Treasures: What Museums Can’t or Won’t Show You, and the Stuck at the Airport blog. Follow her on Twitter at @hbaskas.

From the

Painting Magic Plane

From the

CALGARY, Dec. 2, 2013 /CNW/ – WestJet, WestJet Vacations and Walt Disney Parks & Resorts (Canada) today pulled back the curtain on their most exciting adventure yet — a custom-painted Boeing Next-Generation 737-800 series aircraft featuring Mickey Mouse in his most famous role, Sorcerer Mickey.

WestJet, WestJet Vacations and Walt Disney Parks & Resorts (Canada) first forged a relationship in 2004 based on a shared vision of creating memorable experiences for their guests. Known in the social media world as the #MagicPlane, the aircraft will perform its inaugural flight on December 3, 2013, from Calgary to Orlando, Florida, home of Walt Disney World Resort. Following the flight, the Magic Plane will fly throughout WestJet’s domestic, trans-border and international network.

WESTJET - WestJet soars to new heights with Magic Plane

“We are very proud of our work with Disney and everything we’ve done together over the years to enrich the lives of our guests,” said Gregg Saretsky, WestJet President and CEO. “With the Magic Plane, we are soaring to new heights, offering guests of all ages the chance to share the skies with one of the world’s most beloved and iconic figures. We also look forward to having fun with our guests on the ground as they see the Magic Plane flying over their communities and at airports across our expanding network.”

“Bringing this vision to life has been a true collaboration between our companies and it’s so exciting to see the final result — the aircraft is absolutely beautiful,” said Marlie Morrison, Managing Director, Marketing & Sales, The Walt Disney Company (Canada) Ltd. “WestJetters are the first point of contact for many of our Walt Disney World guests embarking on their memorable family vacation.  We have a great appreciation for WestJet, which shares a similar culture in bringing guests an exceptional experience from beginning to end.”

Fun facts about the Magic Plane:

  • The two sides of the aircraft are mirror images of each other in all aspects but one. We’ll leave it to our guests to decide what that is!
  • There are a total of 36 different paint colours on the aircraft.
  • It took a team of 26 people 24 days working around the clock to paint the Magic Plane.
  • The painting crew consumed more than 150 doughnuts over the 24 days.
  • The painting crew consisted of people from four countries, five states, two provinces and 12 cities.
  • The cookies that will be served on board are a special treat in the shape of Disney characters.
  • Over the next five years, the Magic Plane will fly more than 400,000 guests a total of nearly eight million kilometres.

WESTJET - WestJet soars to new heights with Magic Plane

On board the Magic Plane’s inaugural flight on December 3 will be 16 members of the Boys and Girls Clubs of Canada from various cities across the country. Along with club chaperones and WestJet volunteers, the group will travel to Orlando for three days of fun at Walt Disney World Resort, “pay-it-forward” charity activities, teambuilding and leadership training.

WestJet serves Orlando, home of Walt Disney World Resort, with a total of 39 flights per week during peak winter months from Calgary, Edmonton, Winnipeg, Hamilton, London, Toronto, Ottawa, Montreal, Halifax, Moncton and St. John’s, Nfld.

WestJet Vacations offers a variety of vacation packages to the Walt Disney World Resort. Play, stay, dine and save when you book a five- to 15-night vacation package at select Walt Disney World Resort hotels that includes Magic Your Way tickets and a Disney dining plan. Offer is valid for bookings made by February 22, 2014, for travel between January 5 and April 12, 2014.

From the

Air New Zealand’s Boeing 777-300 aircraft bearing the image of the mythical dragon Smaug from the Hobbit trilogy isn’t the only magic-themed jet making its debut today

AUCKLAND, New Zealand — New Zealand’s national airline on Monday unveiled a giant image of the dragon Smaug on one of its planes to celebrate the premiere of the second movie in the Hobbit trilogy.

Air New Zealand showed the 54-meter (177-foot) image that’s featured on both sides of a Boeing 777-300 aircraft. The plane is scheduled to fly to Los Angeles in time for the premiere of The Hobbit: The Desolation of Smaug, which screens Monday, Pacific Standard Time at the Dolby Theatre.


It was the first time fans got a chance to see director Peter Jackson’s interpretation of Smaug. In the first movie, the director revealed only the dragon’s eye.

The Hobbit trilogy was filmed in New Zealand and is based on the book of the same name by J.R.R. Tolkien.

The image is a decal, or giant sticker, produced by special effects studio Weta Digital, which also worked on the movie.


Air New Zealand spokesman Andrew Aitken said it intends to keep the decal on the plane for at least a year, until the opening of the third Hobbit movie. The airline also used a decal to celebrate the opening of the first movie.

New Zealand has sought to use the popularity of the movies as a way to market itself and boost tourism.


Guerrilla Yarn Artists combine Graffiti and Craft

Yarn crafts have been practiced for centuries, mostly by women. These needle and hook crafts can be used to create blankets, clothing, table cloths and even curtains. Knitting and crochet have now found their way into street art, as yarn graffiti.

Yarn Bombing creates Colorful Shrapnel

Crochet and knit graffiti is sometimes known as “yarn bombing”. The craft street artist will most often create their piece in the quiet of their own homes, before constructing the art work on its intended surface. Yarn graffiti is not limited to any one surface. It has been found on trees, hand rails, fences and hanging from bridges.

Magda Crochet Graffiti Artist Yarn Bombing


Grandma’s Tree Cozy

One of the more well-known yarn designs is a crochet tea cozy. These are essentially a woolen covering that is placed over a hot tea pot to keep it warm. In the images below, a similar covering has been created to cover these trees in a public park, transforming an ordinary public space into a fantastic wonderland.


Guerilla Crochet Yarn Bombing Tree Cozy


Yarn Bombed Statues

Statues appear to be one of the favorite subjects for crochet and knit artists to graffiti. These life -like representations of the human form make a perfect base for a statement, and crafters will often either dress them in crochet items in much the same way that a living person would wear crochet clothing, or pose a crafted creature with the statue. Unlike paint graffiti, these street art works don’t vandalize or damage property. The crochet art can simply be cut away and discarded.




Yarn Bomb Statue Crochet Art Craft Clothing

source:knitonesaveone Giant Yarn Squid Knitted Graffiti Statue Street Art


Barbed Wire and Doilies

Fences make ideal canvases for crochet and knit graffiti artists. These structures have plenty of places where a yarn artist can attach their crafted street art. Crochet seems to be the yarn bomber’s choice of craft for fence decoration, as it is easy to make flowers, birds, butterflies and other decorative elements in crochet.

Yarn Bomb Fence Flowers Craft Crochet Graffiti Street Art


Crochet Swpider Web Razor Barbed Wire Yarn Bomb Street Craft


Yarn Bombing / Guerrilla Crochet – A Collection

More info. More info. More info. More Yarn Bombing and Guerrilla Crochet: 1) B-Arbeiten 2) Agata Olek 3) Yarnbombing 4) Stickkontakt

Agata Oleksiak: 1978, Crotchet-Artist

A loop after a loop. Hour after hour my madness becomes crochet. Life and art are inseparable. The movies I watch while crocheting influence my work, and my work dictates the films I select. I crochet everything that enters my space. Sometimes it’s a text message, a medical report, found objects. There is the unraveling, the ephemeral part of my work that never lets me forget about the limited life of the art object and art concept. What do I intend to reveal? You have to pull the end of the yarn and unravel the story behind the crochet.

Olek Crotchet Artist

My work changes from place to place. I studied the science of culture. With a miner’s work ethic, I long to delve deeper and deeper into my investigations. My art was a development that took me away from industrial, close-minded Silesia, Poland. It has always sought to bring color and life, energy, and surprise to the living space. My goal is to produce new work and share it with the public. I intend to take advantage of living in NYC with various neighborhoods and, with my actions, create a feedback to the economic and social reality in our community.

Agata-Oleksiak-Crotchet-Artist Agata-Olek-02

Olek was born Agata Oleksiak in 1978 in Poland. In 2000, she received a BA in Cultural Studies from Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Poland and relocated to New York City, where she is currently based. Olek’s work has been exhibited in galleries, museums and public spaces worldwide and featured in numerous publications such as TIME Magazine, The New York Times, Wall Street Journal, New York Magazine, Newsweek/Daily Beast, Village Voice, Artinfo, PBS, CNN, CBS, ABC and NBC. Olek is the recipient of the Ruth Mellon Award for sculpture in 2004, In Situ Artaq award (France) in 2011, and a grant in 2011 from the Lower Manhattan Cultural Council (LMCC) for performance in public space. Olek’s residencies have included Sculpture Space in 2005, Instituto Sacatar (Brazil) in 2009 and AAI-LES in 2010. In 2008, Olek was the winner of the Apex Art competition, which aired on PBS. In 2010, the artist was commissioned by the Brooklyn Museum of Art for a one-day interactive performance installation. In 2012, Olek was part of the 40 Under 40: Craft Futures exhibition at the Smithsonian, for which her entire crocheted studio apartment was exhibite

Agata Olek: crochet artist

More about Olek’s crotchet art:

Olek on

David Walker: Street Artist


Most people’s first job involved burgers and fries. David walker’s first job was creating t-shirt designs for The Prodigy. After that, he started designing record sleeves and party art before running his own street wear label called “Subsurface” for five years. It was only three years ago that he started painting. (Pretty impressive he’s accomplished all of that considering he’s broken his hand over 10 times!)

Once a fan of only black and white (with a little bit of pink thrown in for good measure), David now paints with in explosions of colour following his discovery of a little treasure box of spraypaint tucked away in a studio. His portraits are realistically surreal – the sort of images that make you stare for ages.

Which aspects of London life most influence your creativity and how?

I like the randomness of cities and the anticipation that anything can happen (good or bad) and that in turn you can make things happen. I have lived in small towns where there is just not the same sense of possibility, so this is very inspirational for me. I feel privileged to be making art full time and the speed in which this city can move pushes me forward.


Faces are the main subject of your work. Who are the people you paint? Do you know them?

I don’t know them at all. I like that they’ve never met me and they don’t know they’re being painted. I use found photography, old magazines, the web, snapshots, anything that’s not staged by me. The fact that the subjects are unknown also allows people to make up there own narrative to the portraits.

David Walker street art

Tell us about your approach to your work, your unique “no brushes” style and your choice of fantastic vibrant colours.

I’m drawn towards the idea of making something beautiful out of what could be classed as lo-brow materials and methods. I don’t use brushes because I want the pieces to raise a question about graffiti and traditional painting as there can be strong preconceived ideas about both. People are normally quite surprised the work is made from spray paint and I think many are also surprised they actually like the work when its outside on a wall; suddenly they have connected with a scene that they previously had no time for at all.

As for colours, I’ve gone from two extremes. For two years, I only painted in black, white and pink (as it was cheaper and allowed me to concentrate on the subject more), then I came across a  box of random coloured spray paint that had been buried in the studio and started exploring as many colours as I could and all at once. It just felt right at the time and it’s been a lot of fun.


Favourite memory of painting on the walls of London?

Pretty much every time I paint outside, someone comes up to me at the end of the day and says “I saw you doing this earlier and I thought it was gonna be a right load of old crap, but I like it now. Nice one.” I think this is a great compliment.

Which piece are you most proud of at the moment and why?

I’m really happy with this one (above). There were probably at least ten times I wanted to throw it off the fire escape. It finally came together the night before it had to be delivered to a show, so I was glad she made it. It’s not been easy between me and her.


You’re part of the Scrawl Collective. Tell us about this group and how you contribute.

It’s a bunch of artists with different styles and practises. We all dip in and out of it I guess. We do shows here and there, projects come up or one of us might get an idea and get others involved or sometimes nothing happens at all… It’s the 10th anniversary soon, so there are rumours we may be getting something together.

Do you prefer exhibiting in galleries or on the street?

They both have there positives and negatives. Walls are great because you have room to be very expressive and lots of people get to see the painting. With gallery work you get to spend time developing techniques and immerse yourself without anyone watching you. I try to balance both but I need to get outside more next year.


Which other London-based artists do you admire?

So many for so many different reasons. At this very moment: Adam Neate, Will Barras, Polly Morgan, Christopher Moon, Arth Daniels


Any big plans for 2011?

I may be doing a major solo show late 2011. I’m still toying with the idea, so we’ll see what happens.

Interview by Stephanie Sadler from Little London Observationalist.

More of David Walker’s street art:


Alyssa Monks: Photo-realistic paintings

Alyssa_Monks_1977Alyssa Monks began oil painting as a child.

Born 1977 in Ridgewood, New Jersey. Alyssa Monks studied at The New School in New York and Montclair State University and earned her B.A. from Boston College in 1999. During this time she studied painting at Lorenzo de’Medici in Florence. She went on to earn her M.F.A from the New York Academy of Art, Graduate School of Figurative Art in 2001. She completed an artist in residency at Fullerton College in 2006 and has lectured at universities and institution nation wide. She has taught Flesh Painting at the New York Academy of Art, as well as Montclair State University and the Lyme Academy College of Fine Arts.

“Using filters such as glass, vinyl, water, and steam, I distort the body in shallow painted spaces. These filters allow for large areas of abstract design – islands of color with activated surfaces – while bits of the human form peak through. In a contemporary take on the traditional bathing women, my subjects are pushing against the glass “window”, distorting their own body, aware of and commanding the proverbial male gaze. Thick paint strokes in delicate color relationships are pushed and pulled to imitate glass, steam, water and flesh from a distance. However, up close, the delicious physical properties of oil paint are apparent. Thus sustaining the moment when abstract paint strokes become something else.”

“When I began painting the human body, I was obsessed with it and needed to create as much realism as possible. I chased realism until it began to unravel and deconstruct itself,” Alyssa Monks states, “I am exploring the possibility and potential where representational painting and abstraction meet – if both can coexist in the same moment.”

Monks’s paintings have been the subject of numerous solo and group exhibitions including “Intimacy” at the Kunst Museum in Ahlen, Germany and “Reconfiguring the Body in American Art, 1820–2009” at the National Academy Museum of Fine Arts, New York. Her work is represented in public and private collections, including the Savannah College of Arts, the Somerset Art Association and the collections of Howard Tullman, Danielle Steele and Eric Fischl.

Alyssa has been awarded the Elizabeth Greenshields Foundation Grant for Painting three times and is a member of the New York Academy of Art’s Board of Trustees. She is currently represented by David Klein Gallery in Birmingham, Michigan. Alyssa Monks currently lives and paints in Brooklyn, New York.


Monks’s paintings are larger than life. They evoke a response that is serene and emotive. In a translucent surrounding, New York artist Alyssa Monk has created striking visuals of human expression.


Conversing in her Williamsburg studio, one becomes drawn to the canvases whose prominence equal the high-vaulted studio space which house them. Her bathtub series, a collection of portraits, feature partially concealed forms obscured by a foggy haze. Devoid of context, they appear as snapshots isolated in time focusing on pure sentiment.

Comply, Oil on Panel, 2013, Alyssa Monks

Comply, Oil on Panel, 2013, Alyssa Monks

Alyssa Monks, Painting: Comply, Detail

Alyssa Monks

Alyssa Monks

The series marks the result of a process developed over the last decade. The artist has created a seamless barrier between the viewer and subject. There is a sense of depth in a composition that lies on a two-dimensional plane. Expectations are deceived. But, this only adds to the singular impression.

Alyssa Monks, painting

Alyssa Monks

With a background in figurative painting, the ability to work the canvas speaks of her long time fondness for the human form. It has led the series to be labeled as photorealistic, but close inspection reveals images that are a compilation of brush strokes. Together they create one continuous image. Detached, they are abstract and individual, an aid that gives human shape.


The most recent work has taken a new direction, seen in a modified technique and looser representation of the body. The same images move towards greater abstraction, necessitating the interpolation of line and image. There is something natural and familiar about the expression.

Previous text from: Dadada Magazine

Alyssa Monks

Interview with Alyssa Monks


At first glance this image may look like an intimate snapshot caught by a photographer. But these touching shower scenes were not captured by a photographer, but painted by hand by a New York-based artist.

In one painting a girl peeps out from inside a steamed up shower and seems to peer into the camera lens.

And in another image a bikini-clad woman floats effortlessly underwater, showing off the engagement ring on her finger Alyssa Monks paints these images, paying meticulous attention to detail. The 31-year-old said: “I have always wanted to paint for as long as I can remember. “I took classes at school and then went to college and University before ending up at the New York Academy of Art”

“The girl in most of the pictures is myself,” she said. “I have used my own image many times because I do not have to worry about issues of self-consciousness that might arise with models…”

“…However, I have been exploring the faces of family and friends recently too, I prefer to work with people that I know personally and have a relationship with”

“The paintings are very intricate and they take a lot of work to get right. It is all about the desire to try and create an image of a person that is realer than real, beyond what even a photograph can portray”

Alyssa takes about 1,000 pictures for a small series of paintings, using the images to play with the colour and get the paintings as real as possible.

Alyssa added: “I use the photographs I take to help me compose and play with the colour, although I invent a lot of the water and steam effects from memory”.

The New York artist is in demand, currently showing at a prestigious exhibition at the National Academy Museum.

Plans are also afoot for an exhibition at the Kunst Museum Ahlen in Germany and a museum show at the Noyes Museum in New Jersey for next summer.

“I am excited for my exhibitions in the future and I am currently exploring the effect of figures pressed against glass,” she said.

Alyssa Monks paintings show that while the camera may not lie, the paintbrush sometimes does.

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Omar Ortiz: 1977 – Mexico Painter

Omer Ortiz: Earth angels painting

Omer Ortiz: Earth angels painting

Born in Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico in 1977, where he still resides. Arouses a great interest in drawing and illustration desdetemprana age. Studying for a degree in Graphic Design for Communication, where he learned to work with different techniques such as drawing, pastel, charcoal, watercolor, acrylic, and airbrush. After graduating in Graphic Design decided to devote himself to the world of painting. In 2002 He did his first lessons with the painter Oléo Carmen Alarcon to which he considers his principal teacher of Art. Currently paints in oils, considering the noblest art. A Hyperrealism – Minimalist predominantly white, the human figure and a magical game of fabrics, characterized his work.

Omar-Ortiz-pinturas-al-oleo-de-mujeres (5) Omar-Ortiz-01 Omar-Ortiz-13 Omar-Ortiz-12 Omar-Ortiz-11 Omar-Ortiz-10 Omar-Ortiz-09 Omar-Ortiz-08 Omar-Ortiz-07 Omar-Ortiz-06 Omar-Ortiz-05 Omar-Ortiz-03 Omar-Ortiz-02

Why is focusing its efforts on the female nuude?

Because I think the female nuude is one of the most beautiful things that exist and to some part of my work is a tribute to women. The female body provides an infinite range of expression and sensuality in which I have concentrated my work. Is a constant and exciting to find perfection in color, shape and awaken emotions in the viewer with the minimum of elements in my compositions. i hope you like these realistic paintings

What is the situation of realistic painting in Mexico?

Realistic painting in Mexico think is tilted largely toward the subject of the figurative. There is a strong tendency for magical realism. Sometimes I have to think it is a movement that was born in Mexico. In fact, I could not give an overall assessment of what is happening in Mexico right now and I’m not a painter very involved in the middle. Rather spend most of my time in my studio painting and not usually go much exposure.

The model seems to be the same Can we know who is the muse?

There are three girls that I have served as models lately: Vanessa Munguia, Jessica Munguia and Olga Kabada . , never looks at the viewer, seems shy … not necessarily shy, rather the model does not know that we are there, watching at the time of privacy. It is a moment where the audience is silent so as not to interrupt the scene.

What importance does work in large dimensions?

Lot, I think my pieces achieve more impact when the figure has a ladder or even more. Apart from that the size allows me to work better the details, I feel more freedom when painting.

If anything could criticize his work is that it seems that the issue is a repeat offender, what other theme appeals to you?

At the moment I have no interest on other issues. I feel I still have much experience is something that is a bit complicated to explain. You never know when it’s time to change, I think you can not predict, it just happens. So maybe one day without realizing it, switch and start playing with other issues, and finally this is a game that we enjoy.

What other variant sees its paint may have in the future?

Is a difficult question, maybe experiment with other textures, backgrounds, contexts, types of lighting in the scene. But what I think I will retain is the subject of the figure.

What about the various manifestations of contemporary art?

I believe that contemporary art has taken many strange ways. Some of these events meet certain aesthetic rules are what I like and especially what are some others that do not quite understand them. However, I believe that they are all valid, since they are a constant search for the man to create and express. I think everyone is free to express their ideas in the media that best suits your needs. Born in Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico in 1977, where he still resides. Arouses a great interest in drawing and illustration desdetemprana age. Studying for a degree in Graphic Design for Communication, where he learned to work with different techniques such as drawing, pastel, charcoal, watercolor, acrylic, and airbrush. After graduating in Graphic Design decided to devote himself to the world of painting. In 2002 He did his first lessons with the painter Oléo Carmen Alarcon to which he considers his principal teacher of Art. Currently paints in oils, considering the noblest art.


Minimalist predominantly white, the human figure and a magical game of fabrics, characterized Omar Ortiz work.

Dusan Djukaric: 1971: Mystical Watercolour

In one of his lectures he held on February 4, 1957 at the Kolarac National University, Pedja Milosavljevic, the great expert and master of the watercolour technique, talked about “motherly Asia”. The Chinese thought that watercolour is the most valuable and the most difficult artistic technique and they had the utmost respect for it. The most famous Chinese watercolour paper is called CHEN HSIN TENG, which means “a lobby for clearing one’s mind,” and really, I do not know of a more precise definition of this painting technique. The watercolour is a way of clearing both the mind and soul. The journey towards an excellent watercolour painting is always a journey of clarification and Zen purifying from all the excess that might destroy its harmony.

Dusan DjukaricDusan Djukaric knew how to listen to the call and the messages of a civilisation that was faithful, for two thousand years, to the strong ethics and aesthetics, and knows how to transpose some of its essence into his watercolour paintings, whose realisation and ease are truly abashing. Djukaric’s respect for the material, his religious and composed relationship with the precious paper, his concentration and seriousness while working, and his sense of responsibility and tenderness for everything he touches are impressive. This master of the watercolour technique paints with a skill in an absence of skill, like Hasegawa used to say.

His paintings, with their extreme stylistic purity, give out a presentiment, an impression, the rapture, and therefore they seem immaterial. They show a way in which the colour is the emanation of the light and the depths in which the music of the art of the Far East had penetrated his Mediterranean sense. In his sunny paintings, Djukaric is a poetic and musical artist with a fine sensibility. He insists on limited colours that are almost monochromatic. He cares for the Beautiful and the Beautiful is, according to Plotinus, “the blooming of the being”. In his watercolour paintings, we find something of the Romantic conception of the Beautiful – something close to the Novalis’ idea that the world needs to be romanticised over and over again. The fact that a geographical landscape defines permanently a spiritual landscape is confirmed in these refined watercolour paintings.


A profound and sincere sympathy has created his big city scenes and Arcadian landscapes pervaded with a warm lyrical and musical spirituality. Devoted to the cult of beauty and to a festive joy of a scene, this artist, a pure lyricist, manages to keep the power of an innocent view in a demonised world. We won’t find in his paintings anything impulsive or dramatic, there is only a reserved lyric as an expression of a calm, intimate temperament. Djukaric’s landscapes are dematerialised by the musical coloristic fluids and the tender blueness. This artist knows how to bring the spirit of finesse and the lyrical detail to a conventional theme. The modulation of the object is all made of tender passages and half-tones. The musical artistic language that counts on the fluidity of the atmosphere and the tremulous volubility of the water makes all the difference in Djukaric’s art.


The wisdom of this artist lies in his ability to express himself in a rudimentary, and yet easy way (I use the word “easy” in its ritual meaning, not meritorious meaning). However, the journey toward these paintings was not at all easy – it’s a journey of clarification and Zen purification from all the excess that might damage its harmony and cohesion. Everything in these paintings has turned golden from the halo of commitment and a mysterious veil in the world of silence, dream and inebriation. The most impressive pieces in Djukaric’s opus are maybe his paintings of Venice, where the artist has showed an exquisitely refined sense for illusions of space and for the idyllic and romantic appeal of this town that, in the words of Goethe, can be compared only to itself. Djukaric is truly a master of presenting the atmosphere of Venice, with its waters sprinkled with gondolas, and the human figures in his paintings are almost silhouette-like. His watercolour paintings that present the colourful beauty of Perast are equally impressive, with their suggestive contrast between the static coast and the dynamic water.


Starting from that “accidental caprice of the unconscious hand”, and guided by the rapture in the liberty of the movement, Dusan Djukaric in his watercolour paintings (that discover in the most beautiful way the romanticist feature of his personality) finish with the fluid emanations that radiate in the direction of our hearts. So if the watercolours are the expression of the intimate conversation between the soul, the whiteness of the paper, and the fluid stains of colour, then the appeal of Djukaric’s paintings is found first in that margin of something fluctuant and barely touched, in the freshness and wholeness of the white. And there was never a great watercolour painter without the touch for the right ratio between the pigment and colour.


Djukaric has painted his restraining sensual paintings

not only with colour, but also with the spiritualisation of the physical whiteness of the watercolour paper. With the gradation of light and tone, he dissolves, peels and gives rhythm to the scenes that intrigue him and thus he opens to the spectators of a sensible spirit a special atmosphere of joyful enthusiasm. A few stains of colour and linear accents are all Djukaric needs to create a lyrical fantasy using the light and the atmosphere. And, like the ancient tractates teach, the light can shine only from the one who has the light in his soul.

There is a profoundly Mediterranean serenity in these watercolours in which we recognise a refined lyrical poet with the ability to enrich his work with a warm lyrical elevation and the Arcadian coloristic eroticism. Djukaric’s invention in watercolour painting is, therefore, substantially poetic and musical. His paintings are festivities of airy movements, they are very complex, balanced, light and alive, interspersed with nerves that show a pure artistic soul. In the poetic, silvery atmosphere and the golden shimmering of these paintings, in the mysterious grey and sonorous blue of the coloristic music, the things seem to lose their objectiveness. This artist with his aesthetically purified watercolour paintings has reached the ancient Chinese wisdom of stopping the dynamics dusan-djukaric-skc

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